HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE RESEARCH & NEWS
Vitamin B5 It is Everywhere
Vitamin B5: It's Everywhere, It's Everywhere!
by Don V. Richards
Vitamin B5 is a lot like that fictional superhero "Chickenman," whose on-the-air slogan was "He's everywhere, he's everywhere!" Vitamin B5 is also called pantothenic acid. The word "pantothenic" comes from the Greek "pantothen," meaning "from everywhere." That's a reference to the fact that small quantities of Vitamin B5 are found in almost every food.
That's good news because Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient - that is, it's absolutely necessary for life itself. It's believed by some scientists that Vitamin B5 supplementation can help reduce stress and anxiety, speed wound healing, and help with arthritis pain. Some research supports these claims, but some does not. Studies are ongoing.
Vitamin B5 is necessary, like the other B vitamins, for the conversion of food substances - fats, proteins, and carbohydrates -- into fuel and energy for your cells. Unless this process takes place, you'll die. Vitamin B5 is also a necessary component of Coenzyme A, itself needed for this same process. Coenzyme A is also an essential component in the body's synthesis of essential fats, certain neurotransmitters (chemicals needed for nervous system functioning), melatonin (needed for healthy sleep), and hemoglobin (an essential ingredient of red blood cells).
Pantothenic acid is water soluble instead of fat soluble, so it cannot be stored by the body - and any amount that isn't immediately used is excreted in the urine. It also cannot be synthesized by the body - so an intake of B5 is necessary on a regular basis for all of us just for normal health.
Vitamin B5 deficiency is very rare because the vitamin can be naturally found in so many foods. But B5 deficiency disease can occur in cases when diets are very poor. Pantothenic acid deficiency was known among prisoners of the Japanese during World War 2 in Japan, Burma, and the Philippines, for example. Sufferers reported symptoms of tingling and and burning sensations in the feet, accompanied by a general numbness. Participants in a modern study designed to test for pantothenic acid deficiency reported insomnia, gastrointestinal pain, headache, fatigue, numbness, and tingling of the extremities. The cure is simple: Restore a normal level of Vitamin B5 by administering supplements or changing the diet.
Pantothenic acid has been shown in animal tests to speed wound healing, and it had a similar effect on cultured human skin cells in the laboratory when those cells were given an artificial wound - it caused more new skin cells to migrate, and also increased the speed of their migration, and both effects are likely to lower wound healing times. However, the results haven't been replicated in human studies yet, so more research is needed.
One study found that application of pantothenic acid reversed hair graying in laboratory rats. As a result, many soap companies started to incorporate B5, or one of its derivatives, in their shampoos. But there's no evidence yet that the nutrient has a similar effect on human beings.
Vitamin B5 also is a critical ingredient for the the body's synthesis of red blood cells, sex hormones, and stress-related hormones. Pantothenic acid is also needed for proper functioning of the human digestive tract. Without Vitamin B5, the body cannot optimally utilize Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), another necessary nutrient in the B complex family.
A Vitamin B5 derivative called pantethine has been shown by several studies to bother lower the levels of "bad" cholesterol and raise the levels of "good" cholesterol in the human bloodstream. 300 mg of pantethine, taken three times a day for a total of 900 mg daily, was found significantly more effective than a placebo in these tests. Pantethine was also tested on diabetic patients undergoing hemodyalisis with similar beneficial effects, and no negative side effects were noted.
Some studies suggest that a lack of pantothenic acid might cause some of the painful symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It was discovered that people with the disease had lower levels of Vitamin B5 in their bloodstreams than non-sufferers, and those with the least pantothenic acid had the worst symptoms. Research in 1980 showed that 2,000 mg of a type of Vitamin B5 called calcium pantothenate gave relief from arthritis symptoms. Studies continue in this area.
Pantothenic acid is part of the B complex family of vitamins. When supplementing with Vitamin B5, it's a good idea to take a B complex supplement instead of just Vitamin B5 on its own. It's believed that there is a synergistic effect with the B complex vitamins, in which the total benefits exceed the sum of the benefits of each individual vitamin. Get them seriously out of balance, and you won't get the full effect.
The recommended daily dosage of Vitamin B5 for adults is 5 mg for adults, 6 mg for pregnant women, and 7 mg for breastfeeding women. But remember, some of the special benefits discussed above only kick in with doses somewhat larger than the minimums. But extremely high doses can trigger diarrhea and may increase the danger of bleeding due to other injuries.
You should be able to get enough Vitamin B5 without supplementation just by eating a varied, healthy diet. Foods rich in pantothenic acid include milk, yogurt, legumes, mushrooms, yeast, egg yolk, broccoli, liver, kidney, fish, shellfish, royal jelly, chicken, avocado, and sweet potatoes, along with whole grains - but remember that highly processed grains, like white bread, and canned foods, have less of the nutrient, in some cases 75 percent less.
If you do want to supplement, you should know that there is no established toxic dose for Vitamin B5 -- as no deaths due to pantothenic acid overdose are known to science. Long before toxicity could be reached, other symptoms arise and essentially warn the subject that he's had enough of the nutrient. At 10,000 to 20,000 mg per day, diarrhea generally occurs, and nausea and heartburn have also been noted at unusually high doses. Supplementation even at 1,200 mg per day is "generally well tolerated," according to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University.
One warning, though: If you suffer from hemophilia, you probably shouldn't take Vitamin B5 supplements. It's possible that the vitamin will make it take even longer for bleeding to stop, should you become injured. As always in such cases, even if you're just a little bit unsure, consult a trusted physician.
Living in the 21st century has some disadvantages - our food is often highly processed and unhealthy, for example - but there's never been a time before now when people had such easy access to so much health information. Take advantage of the Information Age - read, learn, and take charge of your own diet and your own health today.
Christian Nordqvist, "What Is Vitamin B5?," Medical News Today, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219601.php , accessed 4th June, 2014
University of Maryland Medical Center, Health Reference Guide, "Vitamin B5: Pantothenic acid," http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-b5-pantothenic-acid , accessed 4th June, 2014
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Higdon, Jane, Linus Pauling Institute, "Micronutrient Information Center - Pantothenic Acid," http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/pa/ , accessed 4th June, 2014
Gropper, S. S., et al., (2009), Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, Cengage learning
Organic Facts, "Health Benefits of Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid," http://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/vitamins/vitamin-b5-or-pantothenic-acid.html , accessed 4th June, 2014
Vitamin B3 Niacin the Vitamin You Really Feel
B3: Niacin - the Vitamin You Really Feel!
Don V. Richards
B3 - also known as niacin - is one of the few vitamins we can
take that often causes an immediate, dramatic effect that we can both
feel and see. That effect is called flushing,
and a niacin flush is exhilarating to some people, disturbing
and annoying to others, but it definitely can't be ignored. A
niacin flush can vary from a slight pink color and tingling of the
skin on the face and arms - not unlike blushing - to a dramatic
reddening that looks and feels like sunburn, along with a sensation
of heat. This flush is caused by a dilation of your blood vessels,
especially your capillaries. When you get a niacin flush, it's a
totally harmless reaction that shows that your body is saturated with
this essential nutrient. A niacin flush usually lasts fifteen minutes
to half an hour, and afterward you'll often feel more relaxed, with
an enhanced sense of well-being. In fact, some doctors recommend that
you take niacin right up to the point of slight flushing as an
indicator that you've taken just enough. The human body gradually
adapts itself to Vitamin B3 supplementation, too, so what causes a
flush today might not cause one next month.
of niacin's amazing properties is that it can help you relax
without the need for any artificial substances like "sleeping aids"
and help you fall asleep more rapidly at night. Dr. Andrew Saul says
"At really large doses, niacin can result in a sedating, calming
effect. This is more amazing as it is a nutrient." Saul uses
Vitamin B3 not only for help in relaxing, but to improve the mental
functioning of people suffering from schizophrenia, dementia, and
depression. (He also recommends supplementing at least an equivalent
amount of Vitamin C at the same time to moderate B3's effects on
the GI tract and other changes.) Dr. Jacob Teitelbaum calls niacin "a
natural tranquilizer" and cites a study on rats in which "niacin
had similar effects to valium on the turnover of serotonin,
noradrenalin, dopamine, and GABA in the areas of the brain that are
thought to be affected by anxiety without being addictive. Some
experts go so far as to call niacin 'Nature's Valium.'"
B3 is also one of the best - and most natural - treatments known
for elevating the "good cholesterol" [high-density lipoprotein
(HDL)] levels in your bloodstream, and diminishing the bad
cholesterol [low-density lipoprotein (LDL)]. Patients taking 3,000 mg
of Vitamin B3 daily (starting day one with 1,000 mg, day two with
2,000 mg, and 3,000 mg per day thereafter) were found to have up to a
25 percent lower level of bad cholesterol and a 50 percent reduction
in triglyceride levels. These factors also lead to lower heart
disease mortality among those taking niacin supplements.
John A. Rumberger of the Princeton Longevity Center states that
niacin may not help if a patient already has minimized his bad
cholesterol levels through "proper diet, attaining a proper weight
and body composition, regular aerobic and resistance training" and
treatment with statins (cholesterol-reducing prescription drugs). But
if that goal has not yet been achieved, then supplementing with
Vitamin B3 is "quite clinically appropriate."
to Dr. Andrew Saul, niacin can also reduce the severity of anxiety
and depression. Dr. David Williams recommends patients with arthritis
take between 1,000 to 4,000 mg of niacin daily (in the form
niacinamide) taken in five or six doses throughout the day, to
relieve pain and stiffness in their joints. Niacin in this form, in
action very similar to a niacin flush, opens up the blood vessels
deep in the joints, giving significant relief.
have shown that niacin helps reduce atherosclerosis - the hardening
of the arteries - that is a major cause of cardiovascular disease,
one of the civilized world's major killers. If you've already had
a heart attack, taking Vitamin B3 supplements makes a second heart
attack less likely, according to some recent research.
is ongoing to follow up initial clues that niacin also lowers the
risk of contracting Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, osteoarthritis,
and type 1 diabetes. Dr. David Williams says that if any prescription
drug had all the benefits of "dirt cheap" niacin, "the media
would be singing its praises."
to Dr. Abram Hoffer, who practices the regular use of niacin in the
treatment of depression and schizophrenia, 1,000 mg of niacin taken
three times daily improves memory and can actually reverse senility
in some patients. It also, as already stated, gives a relaxing and
calming effect without the necessity for using expensive, artificial
was first described by a chemist named Hugo Weidel in 1873. Weidel
was studying the properties of nicotine, and when oxidizing nicotine
using nitric acid he discovered what we now call niacin or Vitamin
B3. Originally it was called nicotinic acid, but when its
disease-curing and other biological properties became known, it was
decided to change the name to prevent the public from getting the
misapprehension that cigarettes are good for you (they're not!) or
contain vitamins. So "niacin" was coined, combining select
letters from the words "nicotinic acid vitamin."
is one of the water soluble vitamins, meaning that 1) it's
needed for life to continue; 2) the body can't produce its own
supply; and 3) any B3 beyond what the body can use right now is not
stored and is instead almost immediately flushed out in the urine.
Therefore, we all need both an adequate and a steady
source of niacin.
deficiency is known as pellagra, and Vitamin B3 was once known as
Vitamin P-P for "pellagra preventative." Pellagra symptoms and
effects include what doctors sometimes call the "four Ds":
dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. More specifically, in
addition to the above pellagra can cause extreme sensitivity to
sunlight, skin lesions, hair loss, aggression, quarrelsomeness,
swelling, inflammation of the tongue, insomnia, muscle weakness,
confusion, lack of coordination, enlarged and weakened heart,
paralysis, and nerve damage. Pellagra is common in Africa and in
parts of Asia where diets are often poor - but it's also found in
advanced nations among the poor and homeless. Alcoholism, and drug
interactions which inhibit the absorption of Vitamin B3, can also
lead to the disease. Before its causes were understood, pellagra was
a major killer in the American South - it's estimated that over
100,000 died of it there between 1906 and 1940. When untreated,
chronic niacin deficiency can kill you in under five years. But
there's a simple cure: treatment with niacin or a niacin-containing
the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for niacin is 17 to 35 mg daily
- notably higher than for some of the other B complex vitamins.
Nevertheless, some physicians say that this is far too low to get
maximum benefits from this nutrient, and point out that 3,000 to
9,000 mg daily have been used for treating certain conditions, with
no known harm or side effects (outside of flushing). When using such
high doses, though, they recommend being under the care of a
physician, and accommodating the body to the vitamin by starting out
with a low dose and gradually increasing it over time. Since niacin
can interact with other medications, it's best to consult your
doctor when going outside the boundaries set by the RDA.
are the possible negative effects of taking Vitamin B3? Well, niacin
sometimes irritates the stomach lining if you take it on an empty
stomach - so always take it during or immediately after a meal. If
you suffer from gout, you should know that niacin can cause you to
excrete less uric acid than usual, so avoid taking high-dose niacin
if you have gout - though doses in the RDA range and small
multiples thereof are probably okay: ask your doctor. The worst side
effect reported with niacin use is liver damage, and that side effect
was only associated with the timed-release form of
niacin, developed to help those who wanted to eliminate the "niacin
flush." Just avoid the timed-release type of Vitamin B3 (and
regulate your daily input carefully if the harmless flushing bothers
you) altogether and this won't be a problem.
takes a tremendous amount of this very safe vitamin to achieve a
toxic dose. A toxic dose in dogs is 5,000 mg per 2.2 pounds of body
weight. (This would translate to 250,000 mg for a 110-pound human,
assuming the toxicity factors remain the same for the two species.)
But we don't actually know what the toxic Vitamin B3 dose for
humans is, for the simple reason that no one, to scientific knowledge
at least, has ever died from taking it. If you experience nausea -
a symptom that is very rare - after taking niacin, though, that's
definite sign that you've taken too much. (Ironically, nausea is
also a symptom of niacin deficiency!)
B3 is one of the "B complex" vitamins, and, like the others, is a
nutrient absolutely necessary for human life and health. It takes an
important part in the body's conversion of carbohydrates (food)
into fuel (glucose) for cellular energy and activity.
considering niacin (Vitamin B3) supplementation, it's often wise to
take it as part of a B complex supplement (or multivitamin which
contains a blend of the B complex vitamins), because too much of just
one of the B vitamins can sometimes cause an imbalance, and it's
believed that these essential nutrients act in synergy, in which the
total input has a greater beneficial effect that just the sum of its
individual parts. Similarly, whether you use supplements or not, it's
good to include natural, unprocessed foods rich in Vitamin B3 in your
diet, as there are trace elements in these foods that many believe
also have a synergistic effect with niacin. Foods rich in niacin
include eggs and other animal products, avocados, asparagus, sweet
potatoes, carrots, dates, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, broccoli, nuts,
whole grains, legumes, and brewer's yeast.
as I quoted Dr. Williams saying above, niacin supplements are "dirt
cheap," and niacin's benefits are equivalent to what we'd
imagine those of a "miracle drug" to be. But niacin is a simple
vitamin - not patented or patentable - and one can easily find it
at your local drugstore or pharmacy or online from many reputable
sellers at very low prices. Checking just Ebay alone, today I found a
bottle of 100 tablets (of 250mg each - a pretty high dose!) of
Vitamin B3 for as little as five dollars.
may be some things we don't like about the modern age, but one
thing for sure is very good about it: We've never had better
information about health more easily and widely available, allowing
us to take charge of own health through exercise programs, nutrition,
and health supplements in a better-informed way than ever before in
history. Take advantage of this situation, and begin achieving better
health and a better life today!
Clinic Online, "High Cholesterol,"
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David Williams, "The Many Benefits of Niacin,"
http://www.drdavidwilliams.com/niacin-benefits/ , accessed 18 May
John, Princeton Longevity News, "The 'new' controversy
about Niacin to treat heart disease,"
, accessed 19 May 2014
Andrew W., Doctor Yourself, "How to Determine a Saturation
Level of Niacin," http://www.doctoryourself.com/niacin.html ,
accessed 18 May 2014
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Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Benefits and Side Effects
B2: Riboflavin Benefits and Side Effects
Don V. Richards
B2 - also called "riboflavin" after "ribose," the sugar
which forms part of its chemical makeup, and "flavus," for its
typical yellow color - is a water-soluble vitamin, necessary for
human metabolic processes in the body including cell function,
growth, and the production of energy. Vitamin B2 is needed for the
formation of every single one of our red blood cells and antibodies.
Riboflavin is essential for assuring proper growth and development of
our reproductive systems, and for the necessary growth of all our
body tissues such as skin, ligaments, eyes, nasal passages, nerves
and our all-important immune system. Riboflavin also helps produce
healthy skin, nails, and hair, and it aids in regulating thyroid
activity (which controls how rapidly the body uses food energy and is
a major factor in how energetic you feel). Riboflavin helps in the
absorption of minerals like iron and folic acid and also helps the
body absorb other Vitamins like B1, B3, B6 and others. Riboflavin
also helps to enhance our bodies natural immune system by
increasing our reserves of antibodies.
bright orangish-yellow color of riboflavin is what imparts that shade
to most B complex and multivitamin supplements, and in fact Vitamin
B2 is registered in Europe for use specifically as a safe food
coloring agent! Interestingly, because riboflavin fluoresces under
ultraviolet light, it has often been used to detect leaks or
demonstrate liquid delivery system coverage in industrial
applications. A recent development is the use of Vitamin B2 for the
3-D printing of replacement body parts or microneedles used for
painless cell-level injections. Formerly, there were side effects
from the substances typically used in 3-D printing, but riboflavin is
largely non-toxic and so promises to significantly advance progress
in this field.
the B vitamins - often referred to as the "B complex" of
nutrients or vitamins - help the body metabolize protein and fat.
They convert carbohydrates - food - into glucose - fuel - for
our cells and as such are essential for life.
is necessary for the normal development and function of many bodily
organs, especially the skin, the linings of the stomach and
intestines, and blood cells.
to the University of Maryland Medical Center, Riboflavin also has an
"antioxidant" effect. Oxidants are harmful particles in the
body sometimes called "free radicals." These particles cause
damage to cells over time and are strongly implicated as one of the
major factors in the degeneration of formerly healthy tissue and in
the aging process itself. Free radicals can even damage DNA, and when
they do, cells reproduce defectively, which can sometimes lead to
cancer. As an antioxidant, Vitamin B2 is thought to help preserve
youthful good health, both by itself and in synergy with other
antioxidants and nutrients.
its water-soluble, its not stored in body fats like some other
nutrients and excess amounts are flushed out in the urine. So, to
maintain health, we need not only a sufficient
supply of riboflavin, we also need a
supply. Trace amounts of riboflavin are found in the tissues of most
animals and plants, so eating a natural, healthy diet usually gives
us the necessary amount of B2 without supplementation.
riboflavin sources include milk (and dairy products generally), eggs,
green vegetables (notably asparagus and broccoli), almonds,
mushrooms, soybeans, yogurt, cereals and grains enriched with Vitamin
B2, asparagus, popcorn, bananas, and most animal-based foods. Vegans
and vegetarians especially should take care to get enough of this
vital nutrient. Yeast extract is particularly rich in B2.
deficiency is called "ariboflavinosis" - and, naturally, adding
Vitamin B2 in such cases is called for. Some symptoms of
ariboflavinosis are anemia (low red blood cell count), weakness,
dandruff, fatigue, dizziness, hair loss, loss of sleep, poor
digestion, slowed mental response, swelling of the throat or tongue,
sensitivity to light, skin irritation, and skin cracking or soreness
at the edges of the lips. Though the full-blown deficiency is rare,
it is sometimes seen among those with very poor diets, severe or
chronic diseases, alcoholics, the poor, and elderly. Though often
associated with the very poor diets of Third World countries, it is
estimated that some 28 million Americans suffer from "sub-clinical"
those who are anemic, it is often found that their riboflavin levels
are also low, and the effectiveness of the iron therapy usually used
in such cases is increased by restoring normal riboflavin levels via
supplementation or diet changes.
supplementation along with light exposure (phototherapy) has been
found helpful for infants with neonatal jaundice.
a preliminary study of 31 patients afflicted with Parkinsons
disease, every single individual showed, when tested, evidence of
Vitamin B2 deficiency. All of those patients who were given 30 mg of
riboflavin three times daily for six months showed definite
improvements in motor skills and strength. The improvements were
evident at three months and were maintained or even improved further
at the end of the six month period. (One flaw in this study is that
all participants also stopped eating red meat during the trial, and
it is not known if this was a synergistic factor in combination with
the Vitamin B2 supplementation.)
studies suggest that Vitamin B2 can have a positive role in the
treatment and prevention of cataracts, and research is ongoing in
patients being treated with tricyclic antidepressants, its been
found that boosting Vitamin B2 levels improves their scores for both
cognitive function and depression. Its thought that the
antidepressants themselves may partially suppress normal riboflavin
levels, making supplementation a good idea. Some nutritionists
believe that Vitamin B2 by itself can be helpful in preventing
those suffering from anorexia or bulemia, its often noted that
their blood levels of vital nutrients are low - and nearly a third
are deficient in Vitamin B2. While dietary changes are obviously
called for in such situations, supplementation can have a role while
a program of healthy eating is being instituted.
research also suggests Vitamin B2 in high doses may help prevent
migraine headaches. Taking 400 mg per day of riboflavin reduced the
number of migraine attacks according to these studies, though it
didnt reduce the perceived pain they caused when they did occur.
high doses, Vitamin B2 can cause an increase in urine flow and will
color the urine orange. It can also cause diarrhea. But it is
considered otherwise safe. The body will regulate riboflavin levels
itself with no ill effects. In the recommended dietary allowance
range of 1.4 to 1.6 mg per day, it is also considered safe for
pregnant and breastfeeding women - larger doses may be safe, too,
but not enough studies have been done to allow certainty, so be
amount of Vitamin B2 you need will vary depending on your personal
health and conditions you may be suffering. For most people, eating a
healthy, natural diet rich in green vegetables will provide all the
riboflavin you need for normal health.
from migraine headaches typically take a daily dose of 400 mg of
Vitamin B2 over a period of several months.
youre dealing with low levels of riboflavin in your blood (Vitamin
B2 deficiency) adults typically supplement with 5 to 30 mg every day,
separated into several doses.
who are following the program for preventing cataracts suggested by
some studies take 2.6 mg of riboflavin daily, some along with 40 mg
of niacin too.
official adult recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Vitamin B2 are
(daily figures) are 1.1 mg for non-pregnant or breastfeeding women,
and 1.3 mg for men. These values are closely tied to energy
expenditure - so those who are highly active may need more than
these allowances for normal functioning.
the RDA for Vitamin B2 in Russia is approximately twice the US level
- but thats still comparitively low. Nevertheless, about 71
percent of Americans would fall below adequate B2 levels if judged by
the Russian RDA.
you use supplements to achieve the optimal levels of riboflavin,
remember that increasing your intake of just one of the B complex
vitamins can lead to an imbalance. As long as all safe dosage levels
are maintained, its usually better to take a B complex supplement
which maintains the natural balance between these beneficial
nutrients. Its also thought that they have a synergistic effect
when taken together - that is, the benefits of the entire complex
are greater than the sum of those of the individual vitamins.
scientists at the Life Extension Foundation believe that higher than
maintenance doses will have a beneficial effect and they include 50
mg of Vitamin B2 in their daily "Life Extension Mix" vitamin and
nutrient recommendations - almost 3,000 percent greater than the
RDA (though still well under the doses routinely used by migraine
patients). Many commonly available supplements provide around half
this level - 20 to 25 mg, still far above the RDA.
is not at all toxic when ingested by mouth, though it is possible to
achieve toxic doses via injection. Even those given 400 mg per day in
the migraine study - far beyond the putative life extension dose -
exhibited no short-term side effects at all.
considering supplements, consider ones made with natural instead of
synthetic Vitamin B2. Synthetic riboflavin is supposed to be
virtually identical to the natural variety, but some synthetic
varieties are produced through the fermentation of genetically
modified bacteria, and many health-conscious people are trying to
eliminate GMOs (genetically modified organisms) from their diets on
the grounds that we just dont know their long-term effects on
living things yet. Synthetics can usually be identified by having the
letters dl- in front of the nutrients name on the ingredients
list, or by having substances ending in -ide, -acid, or -ate as
additional ingredients (these are salts or other additives used to
make the synthetic forms last longer). Natural-source vitamins also
contain trace elements that our bodies have evolved over millennia to
ingest along with the foods we eat.
level and source of Vitamin B2 you choose, remember that our purpose
here is to help you make an informed choice - and take charge of
your health yourself
instead of leaving it in the hands of others. Our diets may be poorer
than ever in general today, but its also true that access to the
latest research and facts about nutrition and health has
never been easier than it is today.
Take advantage of the information revolution, and use your own
reasoning and judgment - and change your life for the better today!
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placebo-controlled trial," Journal
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