Hgh Synthetic Growth Hormone

PURCHASE PRESCRIBED INJECTABLE HGH THERAPY



HOME > HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE RESEARCH & NEWS

Previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Next






Xylitol Alternative Low-Calorie Sweetener

Written by Dr. Welsh, Published on 12 October 2016

Xylitol – Alternative Low-Calorie Sweetener

As we learn more about how bad that simple sugars and simple carbohydrates are for are health, it's important to look into alternative sweeteners in our quest to improve health and safeguard longevity. One particular alternative to sugar that occurs naturally in the environment is known as Xylitol.

What is Xylitol?

Xylitol is an alternative sweetener that is present in many of the foods that we eat, like vegetables and fruits. Xylitol can also be extracted from particular hardwoods, and is used to fortify foods that we eat. In addition to absorbing Xylitol from diet, the human body has the capacity to make a small amount of the sugar alcohol using internal physiological processes.

How Long Has Xylitol Been Used for Food?

Xylitol has been used in foods since that late 19th century. The nutrient was first described in 1891 by a German researcher. Though it was used in a limited manner in the early 20th century, World War II led to a rapid increase in production and distribution of Xylitol, beginning in Finland, as a result of sugar scarcity during wartime. At the time, the Finnish named Xylitol Koivusokeri, which literally means Birch Sugar in English. Though Xylitol can be extracted from a variety of foods and organic products, it was first collected from birch fibers.

After World War II and into the sixties, Xylitol's use as a sweetener expanded quickly into Japan, the Soviet Union, and Europe. Eventually, Xylitol made its way onto American soil, and is widely used today. Xylitol has high marks from the American Dental Association for its impact on dental health, and has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a safe food product.

Where does American Xylitol Come From?

For commercial use, Xylitol generally comes from a few distinct sources, the most common of which are cornhusk, seed husks, cane pulp, and cellulose from trees.

How Do Simple Sugars Compare to Xylitol?

Table sugar and Xylitol are both potent sweeteners, but there are some major differences between the two. For example, Xylitol does not actually belong to the class of compounds known as sugar. In fact, Xylitol is a sugar alcohol. Other sugar alcohols include Erythritol, Maltitol, Mannitol, and Sorbitol. Most of the common sugars have 6-carbon chains, such as Dextrose, Fructose, and Sucrose. Xylitol, on the other hand, is a 5-carbon compound.

Xylitol has some powerful benefits as compared to common table sugar. As you've probably heard in recent months and years, it is becoming increasingly clear that excess sugar consumption has a hugely negative effect upon health, and sugar-alternatives such as Xylitol can replace sugar as a sweetener. Our bodies are designed to absorb simple sugars and carbohydrates rapidly, which leads to a spike in blood sugar and can hinder proper insulin production. In fact, the body can partially absorb Xylitol without Insulin, which further suppresses the need for insulin.

How Do Xylitol and Sugar Compare with Regard to Caloric Intake?

Because of these specific differences in how the body uses and metabolizes Xylitol, an equivalent amount of Xylitol will only lead to the absorption of 60% of the calories as compared to simple sugars. Xylitol passes through most of the digestive system without being metabolized, until it reaches the large intestine, where it is partially digested.

For the same sweetness, it would take 4 calories from sugar, as compared to only 2.4 for Xylitol. In addition to the sensation of sweetness, Xylitol leads to a sensation of cooling, not entirely unlike mint, but not as potent. This sensation occurs because Xylitol is an alcohol, and reacts with chemicals in the saliva, which leads it to absorb heat.

How Can Xylitol Benefit Health and Wellness?

Because of the dietary caloric benefits of Xylitol, there has been a lot of research on the chemical, as it relates to our health. Xylitol is frequently used in sugar-free gum, and has been endorsd by the ADA because of its positive impact on dental health. Studies have shown that brushing twice per day and chewing gum containing Xylitol leads to a major reduction in the formation of cavities.

There are two known means by which Xylitol safeguards oral health. Foods containing simple sugar are bad for our teeth because they encourage the proliferation of bad bacteria which induce an overly acidic environment in the mouth, which is terrible for tooth enamel. Unlike simple sugars, Xylitol does not undergo the process of fermentation. This helps preserve the natural pH of the mouth, which is slightly above 7. The second reason why Xylitol reduces the incidence of cavities is because it encourages the release of saliva, which both preserves the enamel and disperses acids which etch into the enamel.

Xylitol Drawbacks

One drawback of Xylitol and other sugar alcohols is that it can lead to gastrointestinal issues when consumed in excess. This is because Xylitol has laxative effects, resulting from the way that it passes through the digestive system. Because we only partially break down Xylitol, it can lead to diarrhea, flatulence, and bloating. Most people that use Xylitol regularly are able to overcome these laxative effects, and it should be noted that it takes a lot of Xylitol to lead to these issues. Xylitol is quickly becoming favored over other sugar alcohols (especially sorbitol), because it is much less likely to lead to gastrointestinal distress.

Combine Xylitol with Stevia and other Sugar Alternatives to Enhance Health

If you are interested in preserving your oral health and improving your overall wellness, chewing gum with Xylitol as a sweetener is a smart choice. Xylitol is not heavily used in foods and drinks that we eat every day, but Stevia makes a fantastic alternative to table sugar in teas, drinks, and many foods. Take steps to minimize your intake of simple sugars, and focus on getting your carbohydrates from complex such as whole grain rice, whole wheat bread, and vegetables.


Testosterone Overview

Written by Dr. Welsh, Published on 10 April 2017

health buy hgh injections uk

Testosterone Overview

What is Testosterone?

Testosterone is one of the building blocks of human life. Without Testosterone, humans couldn't exist, because Testosterone is the male sex hormone which contributes to the growth, development, and maintenance of male form and function. Testosterone is also produced by women, but in much lower amounts.

Testosterone belongs to a class of hormones known as Androgens, which are hormones (primarily associated with the male physiology) which activate Androgen Receptors. Testosterone is the most important Androgen, and the most potent.

Testosterone and Male Development

Prenatally, Testosterone is responsible for the formation of primary male sex characteristics, most notably the seminal vesicles, prostate, scrotum, testicles, and penis. Exposure to Testosterone during this period is absolutely necessary for full and total normal male development.

Testosterone exposure in late-childhood leads to male puberty, contributing to the physiological changes which turn a boy into a man, including the deepening of the voice, changes in body fat, increase in muscle mass, stimulation of bone growth, the full development of the sex organs, and more.

Whereas Testosterone is responsible for growth and development during the earlier stages of human life, after puberty has concluded, Testosterone no longer encourages growth, but is necessary to maintain health, wellness, and sexual function. Normal Testosterone Levels are directly associated with healthy libido, high fertility, balanced mood, high energy levels, strong bones, and a strong heart.

Types of Low-T

Low-T is a condition in which the body does not have the means to produce the levels of Testosterone necessary to meet the needs of the male body. This condition is also referred to as Hypogonadism or Testosterone Deficiency. If Low-T occurs during adulthood as a result of aging, it is called Age-Related Hypogonadism or Somatopause.

There are many causes of Testosterone Deficiency, but all of these causes can be grouped into two categories: Primary Hypogonadism and Secondary Hypogonadism.

Primary Hypogonadism is any condition which directly affects the function of the testes and/or seminal vessicles.Secondary Hypogonadism is any condition which suppresses the release of Testosterone Precursor hormones (Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone), which impedes normal Testosterone Production or fertility.

Causes of Low-T

Hypogonadism can be the result of a wide number of causes. Cancer, surgery, and trauma can impair physiological function. There are also some congenital defects which prevent the normal release of Testosterone or development of the male sex organs. The most common cause of Testosterone Deficiency is aging, though it can be exacerbated by other factors, such as sedentary lifestyle and obesity.

In children, Testosterone Deficiency leads to weaker bones, stunted growth, smaller muscles, and inhibited sexual potency. It can even have a major effect on personality development, as Testosterone is associated with many masculine traits such as confidence and assertiveness.

In adults, Low-T does not have effects which are immediately as noticeable, but they can still be significant and can strongly impact health, wellness, longevity, and fertility. Men with Low-T are more impacted by fatigue, low sex drive, loss of bone mineral density and strength, and increase in body fat than their peers. Beyond that, they are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular complications such as heart disease and stroke.

Disorders and Conditions Associated with Testosterone Deficiency

Types of Congenital Testosterone Deficiency

  • Klinefelter Syndrome This is a genetic disorder in which the male is born with two X chromosomes. This leads to symptoms related to increased Estrogen Levels and inhibited Testosterone Production, including shrunken testes, breast development, feminine hair patterns, and infertility.

  • Kallmann's Syndrome Inability to produce Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

  • Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Deficiency Insufficient production of the Testosterone Precursor Luteinizing Hormone.

  • Cryptochordism Partially-descended or undescended testicles.

  • Anorchism Completely undeveloped testes.

Causes of Acquired Testosterone Deficiency during Childhood and Adulthood

  • Testicular, Hypothalamic, and Pituitary Tumors

  • Radiation from Chemotherapy

  • Head Trauma or Testicular Trauma

  • Damage from Radiation

  • Damage from Chemotherapy

  • Aging

Symptoms of Aquired Testosterone Deficiency depend upon the age in which the symptoms appear. Childhood Hypogonadism is associated with late puberty or partial puberty, and can lead to symptoms of feminization such a gynecomastia and impaired hair development, as well as abnormally low muscle mass, increased body fat, and incomplete masculinization of the genitals.

How is Testosterone Produced?

The secretion of Testosterone by the testes and adrenal glands is the end-result of a a number of cyclical hormone interactions which originate and end at the brain. The delicate balancing act occurs on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis. Upon stimulation, the Hypothalamus starts the process by releasing Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, which travels to the Anterior Pituitary Gland. Upon pituitary response by GnrH, Leuteinizing Hormone is released and flows through the blood stream to the adrenal glands and the testes. Upon reaching these target sites, LH interacts with Androgen Receptors in the Leydig Cells and this leads to Testosterone secretion.

All of these hormones are released in short bursts. In fact, the body doesn't produce much Testosterone, because Testosterone is such an incredibly potent Androgen. In a healthy male, it only takes four to seven milligrams of Testosterone to meet the functional needs of the body.

Onset of Testosterone Decline and Deficiency

Testosterone Levels after birth remain low until around the time puberty begins. Puberty is triggered by an increase in Testosterone, which increases rapidly and remains high through the teens and twenties. It isn't until the late twenties that Testosterone Production starts to fall into a state of slow and steady decline. By the time that a man reaches his eighties, free Testosterone Levels drop to as low as 20% of what they were in his twenties, and that's in the case of healthy men.

Adult-Onset Testosterone Deficiency can become symptomatic as early as the thirties in male patients with comorbid conditions such as diabetes combined with a sedentary activity level. In these cases, treatment can often be postponed and Testosterone Levels elevated simply by making healthy lifestyle changes, exercising, and losing weight. Men than smoke and drink are also more likely to experience Testosterone Deficiency, and at an earlier age.

Prevalence of Testosterone Deficiency

Low-T is very common in the United States and around the world. It may even be more common in America than most other countries because of the high incidence of obesity in our society. Researchers believe that around 13 million males in the country have symptomatic Low-T, but only around one in ten reach out to a professional for medical treatment. There is double the rate of Testosterone Deficiency among men with hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.

Partially because so few eligible men commonly reach out for treatment and partially because of the rapid increase in advertising and information about Low-T, Testosterone Therapy for Andropause is being prescribed more than ever, with few signs of slowing down in the coming years.

Adult males with Testosterone Deficiency are very likely to experience symptoms such as anxiety, depression, fatigue, loss of muscle mass, sexual dysfunction, and low libido. Furthermore, they are more likely to experience dangerous health conditions such as heart attack, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, stroke, and diabetes.

Research has shown that over two thirds of men with Low-T experience significant muscle fatigue. Around 1/3rd of men with Testosterone Deficiency have changes in bone mineral density which lead to increased risk of fractures and breaks.


Part 1: Suzanne Somers on hormone therapy for menopause, part 1 of 6

Written by Dr. Welsh, Published on 09 October 2017

Transcript of video

What an entrance.

Oh you, good to see you.

Youve procreated since last year.

That's what happens in this whole anti-aging world.I'm so privileged to be here, I'm so privileged to be your messenger. I know you didn't choose me and I didn't really choose you. I just came from a passion that something was not working right. I remember when I was a little girl, Elizabeth Taylor was on the cover of Life magazine and the reason she was on the cover of Life magazine is that nobody could believe that a woman could look good at forty. They celebrated forty. I remember thinking, gosh she's old but she looks good.

Well now forty is, you know, a lot of forty-year-olds are still living with their parents.

And then in the sixty's Gloria Steinem was a little older than I am was on the cover of People magazine because she looked good for forty and I remember her saying at a press conference that this is what forty looks like. So I'm here to tell you today that this is what sixty looks like.

Thanks to you and what youre doing, I've been devirus-ed and detoxed Ive been, um, HGH-ed and Testosterone-ed and Estrogen-ed and.I do it all, and it's so great. I feel so great. And I really believe that right now we're at a crossroads and the crossroads are a choice. And I don't know about you but I don't try to convince people anymore, it's just too exhausting. It takes too much energy. But the crossroads as you know are you can either choose where you want, you can choose fifty-year-old medicine. If thats what you want fine and take all your pharmaceutical drugs and end up in a nursing home. OR you can jump on this fast-moving train. And this fast-moving train is why we're all here. It is, it makes so much sense. I have always connected dots. That's what I do, and it makes absolute perfect sense to me that as we age and we decline that you want to put back what you've lost in the aging process. Now my husband's, um, cousin is a gynecologist, I wont even tell what part of the country so he doesn't know I'm telling the story on him. Anyway I was giving a lecture in this part of the country to women and women, by the way, are so hungry. So hungry for this information. When I give a lecture in any town always two thousand and twenty-five hundred, sometimes three thousand women show up. It is so incredible and you can hear a pin drop because they just want someone to give them some clarification. And although I never give advice what I'm able to do is say what I did for me and then direct them to one of you when I know about you and what you are doing. So anyway, my cousin, on my husband's side of the family, my cousin comes up to me after the lecture and he didn't come to the lecture because he said, I dont even have time to keep up with standard care. And I thought you are the problem.

And he said to me, Suzanne, Menopause is a natural state. Just let nature take its course. And I said, Then let us die, you won't let us die. We used to die when nature took its course, we used to die at the turn of the century at forty, forty-five and then Antibiotics and sewage and, and technology came along and we lived to sixty, sixty-five and you know now we live to ninety, one hundred, one hundred twenty, some people are going beyond that. I'll take a hundred twenty, I said, but if they're going to prolong our lives then I want to have quality of life because I think there's a racket going on right now and the rocket in standard care, well-meaning though it is - I'm not I'm not putting it down, it's well-meaning - but you don't know what you don't know. I really think at some point with all the talk about anti-aging, longevity, Bio-Identical Hormones. If I were a doctor and I didn't know anything about it and I didn't learn it in school, I'd come to one of these conferences. Id take a course. I'd go, Hey, what is that you're all talking about. So when they, when they keep us alive this long, we want to have that quality of life, but the racket is that we reach a certain age, and for women it happens so fast it's in our face, we start losing our hormones and then we lose ninety percent of our hormones over a two year period and we feel awful. And I know we're not going to live without all that I know

When we when we live this long, we don't put the warmonger back you go to the doctor you say I'm so depressed and I can't sleep and I've got allergies and my eyes are watering and my skin itches and I don't have any sex drive and I just don't feel like I used to feel, and what's the first thing that that woman gets? Prozac.

There is not one woman out there with a Prozac deficiency.

And so I watch my girlfriends and you know for all of you that are in this business, you can't convince your family, right, and you can't convince your best friends because they've known you forever and what do you know. So I have all these girlfriends who are on what I call the men a POS cocktail Prozac, Ambien, Claritin, anti-anxietypain medication for all the joint pain and hip pain and knee pain knees are going out, hips that are going out, minds that they're losing and what do they get is this menopause cocktail of all these drugs. Now for those of you who are really into this, you know that that accumulation of chemicals eventually when the family doesn't want to, they feel really bad, but it's just so hard to take care of them anymore and I'm afraid if I leave her at the house that she'll set the house on fire or she runs away or he can't remember anything and so I felt so badly but I had to put them in a nursing home but it's a nice one it's a good one.

And that's the racket.

Previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Next



free human growth hormone consultation

Please Contact Us Via The Form Below.



The First Step: If you are interested in starting a program, contact us for a free consultation. Your info will remain confidential. * Indicates Required Field.
You must provide valid phone number & E-mail address or we will be unable to contact you.



* Your Name:   
* Phone:
* Your E-Mail:   
* HRT Program:
* HRT Type:
* Your Age (30+ Only):
* Your Date Of Birth:   
* US State:
* Subject:   
* Detailed Message & Best Time to Reach You:   
Security image   
 


For a fast response, fill out our Medical Questionnaire Form







hgh online medical consultation

free quality of life survey form

  Live Better, Contact Us Today!

Security image



American HGH Clinics in the USA
HCG Testosterone Therapy in the USA

PLEASE Choose Your U.S. State:



All of our Board Certified Medical Physicians and Doctors are knowledgeable specialists in prescribing HGH, Testosterone, Sermorelin, and HCG Weight Loss Diet. Our HRT Doctors have a minimum of 20 years expertise providing legitimate prescription programs for hormone optimization and hormone replacement therapy.

quality of life assessment form



HGH CategoriesHGH Effects

Growth Hormone Starting GuideHGH Tools

Growth Hormone Starting GuideHGH Recommendation
Growth Hormone Starting GuideHGH Start Guide

Growth Hormone Starting GuideHCG Diet Research
Human Growth Hormone OverviewHGH Overview

Growth Hormone Starting GuideSERMORELIN Injections

HGH Gene TherapyHGH Genes
HGH Health TopicsHGH FAQ
HGH Testing RequirementsHGH Tests
HGH ReplacementHGH Replacement
Scams Involving HGHHGH Scams
Summary Of HGHHGH Summary
HGH Health TopicsTESTOSTERONE HRT



NORDITROPIN VIALS OR PEN

Norditropin Kigtropin Hgh For Sale

Norditropin Pen System is activated with first usage and can be used for three weeks without any refrigeration, Pen will last 4 weeks with refrigeration after which potency might begin to degrade. Pens not being used must be refrigerated.



TESTOSTERONE CYPIONATE VIALS

Side Effects Of Low Cypionate Testosterone Levels

OMNITROPE VIALS OR OMNITROPE PEN

How To Increase Omnitrope Testosterone Levels Naturally

Omnitrope Comes with multi-dosage vials which you mix with Bacteriostatic water to activate. Refrigeration between usage is always required. Mixed and unmixed vials must be refrigerated.



GENOTROPIN PEN

Low Genotropin Testosterone Symptoms

SERMORELIN ACETATE VIALS

Low Sermorelin Testosterone Levels

HUMATROPE PEN

Humatrope Human Growth Peptides

TEV TROPIN PEN

tev-tropin pen

Tev Tropin comes with multi-dosage vials which you mix with bacteriostatic water to activate. Refrigeration between usage is always required. Mixed and unmixed vials must be refrigerated.

Doctors Best Hgh Bodybuilding

Medical Specialist Consultants

Testosterone Therapy Benefits

Correctly performed testosterone therapy can be your ticket to health.

Three sided solution: Testosterone + HCG + Arimidex

If your doctor only prescribes testosterone by itself, you will probably have a rough ride. The tendency is for you to feel great the first couple months, while you increase testosterone levels, followed by a slow deterioration, once your estrogen creeps up.

High estrogen negates a lot of the positives from testosterone therapy, resulting in the same symptoms of low testosterone you had in the first place!

The solution is to add a drug called Arimidex. It's called an aromatase inhibitor, which essentially blocks the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. It has the effect of increasing testosterone levels, while keeping your estrogen low.

Once you have your testosterone and estrogen solved, it's time to stop the next inevitable decline? Shrinking testicles.

This is where HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) comes in. It prevents both infertility and testicle shrinkage. Your testicles shrink because your body thinks it doesn't need to make testosterone anymore.

For some, small testicles may seem like just a cosmetic problem. But HGC does more than increase testicle size, it also increases adrenal function, which can have positive effects on well-being, libido, and energy.





Hcg Kits
HCG Molecule

HCG Molecule - Click For Gallery




Best Hgh Reviews
HGH Molecule

HGH Molecule - Click For Gallery

Best Injections Hgh Chart
HGH Decline

HGH Decline Gallery




Bioidentical Hormones Testosterone
TESTOSTERONE Molecule

Testosterone Molecule - Click For Gallery

Cypionate Injection Usp Testosterone Chart
TESTOSTERONE Decline

Testosterone Decline Gallery




Sermorelin Ghrp
SERMORELIN Molecule

Sermorelin Molecule - Click For Gallery




Igf 1
IGF-1 Molecule

IGF-1 Molecule - Click For Gallery




Male Hormone Sermorelin Replacement Therapy

Sermorelin Product




3D Hormone Molecules


3d hgh molecule
3d testosterone molecule


Body Mass Index Calculator









hgh recommendation We recommend

suzanne somers on benefits of hormone replacement therapy

Ageless By Suzanne Somers. The naked truth about Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy is a comprehensive book about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) by Suzanne Somers. The book discusses the revolutionary medicine of HRT....


menopause


Hormone Injection Videos

HGH Injections in the Mainstream Media News

Testosterone in the Mainstream Media News



Male And Female HGH Injection Treatments

Buy HGH Injection Treatment for Men

Buy HGH Injection Treatment for Women



Labcorp Medical


  • Natural Hgh Treatment Health Ingredients
  • Purchase Hgh Health Injections
  • Natural Testosterone Health Therapy
  • Over The Counter Health Testosterone Supplements
  • Purchase Hgh Injections Health Online


Take the Hormone Deficency Questionnaire



hgh tv growth hormone information

Hollywood Uses HGH Sylvester Stallone

Stem Cell Therapy Vitamins and Minerals

Resveratrol Grow Tall with HGH

Body Building with HGH HGH Side Effects

Nutraceuticals HGH Natural Sources

Essential Vitamins and Minerals Growth Hormone Therapy

HRT Videos / TV Beneficial HGH

HGH Illegal/Scams Brands of HGH

HGH Science HGH Overview

HRT Overview Immortality Medicine

Testosterone Diet Science


testosterone therapy
 
HGH Human Growth Hormone stimulates growth and cell regeneration. Read about its anti aging properties
 
HGH Injections
 
 
Copyright © 2007 - 2018 Conscious Evolution Institute

Hormone Replacement Therapy, HGH Injection Therapy, Growth Hormone,
HCG, Sermorelin, Testosterone and HRT Medical Solutions
 
buy hgh
 

By using the Site you acknowledge and agree to the terms of use, privacy policy and legal disclaimer.

Protected by Copyscape Originality Checker



A free US Medical Consultation towards suitability of HGH or Testosterone medical therapy
Conscious Evolution Institute of Physicians Rejuvenation, 5608 PGA Boulevard #208, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33418.

Disclaimer: The board-certified American physician specialists at our reputable medical clinic do not provide prescriptions and HRT treatments unless there is a clinical necessity for the patient at the time of the assessment. Clinically based hormone deficiency is determined by blood testing, physical exam, related symptoms evaluation, medical history documentation, and doctor-patient consultation. These statements presented here at our website have not been evaluated by the FDA.

hgh home page human growth hormone main page contact us for hgh consultation start an hgh consultation about hgh therapy

Back to Top