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Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 07 February 2014

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Making Money with Testosterone

The characters of the movie Wall Street are the epitome of what comes to most peoples minds when they think of the financial excess of the moneyed elite in the eighties, whether they realize such or not. Even though the majority of people have not seen this amazing film, society as a whole absorbed its message and its perception of those at the top of the financial world. The characters of Wall Street are primarily big money traders on the American and international stock markets.

The men who were the most successful in the film all belonged to a similar template. They were masculine to the core. They were aggressive and they strove to defeat their competition and strike it rich by any means necessary. They were intense alpha dogs with surly character that matched.

Wall Street: The Truth about Assertiveness and Success

Although the characterization of this film played a role in cementing the stereotype of the cut throat yet immensely successful businessman, there are some core truths about the human character and what it takes to get the most out of life that can be understood deeply when watching this epic film. Researchers participating in a study at the University of Cambridge have come to a logical conclusion that most people have understood in their hearts throughout their entire lives:

It isnt money and material wealth that drive the world, its pure Testosterone.

This study has provided significant evidence that the more Testosterone that a stock market trader produces, the more financial success they will derive from their testosterone at least up until a certain threshold.

Testosterone, Biology, and Business

Perhaps not surprisingly, this psychological and physiological study was derived not only by representatives from the fields of psychology or biology, but from an academic representing the social science of business itself. Cambridge Business professor John Coates partnered with Cambridge neuroscience professor and renowned psychological expert Joseph Herbert in order to test their hypothesis about the link between Testosterone and financial success. John Coates has not always been an Oxford Professorhe earned his stripes on the front line of business, earlier in his life he had developed a successful career on Wall Street managing the trade floor for Deutsche Bank.

The Method of Study

The two professors monitored seventeen stock traders who worked for the Bank of London, and they performed blood testing over the course of 8 consecutive days on the market floor. The goal of this study was to monitor the hormone levels of these day-traders to measure for any correlation between hormonal elevation and trader success. The seventeen traders were evaluated by levels of cortisol and testosterone in their blood stream

The Nature of Testosterone and Cortisol

Testosterone has been linked to a number of different character attributes. Men with high testosterone tend to be more assertive than their peers. This doesnt always manifest itself in aggression. Elevated Testosterone simply means that these men are more apt to make strong willed stances and heartfelt decisions than those who have lower levels of Testosterone. Cortisol, on the other hand, is linked to stress. Higher levels of stress, whether that duress is of a physical or mental typology, lead to elevated cortisol levels. These elevated cortisol levels are linked with cautious actions and men who have exceedingly high cortisol levels will be much more likely to avoid risk and confrontation.

The Results: High Testosterone Equals Major Success

When they monitored the men, the two researchers discovered that those who had the highest levels of Testosterone in the AM hours were the most likely to achieve financial success during the trading day. One particularly savvy (or lucky) trader made major gains six days in a row. During this cant-lose period that the man experienced, he made twice as much money than he earned on a normal trading day. It was also discovered that at the same time his financial outlook had improved, his endogenous Testosterone production surged by almost 75%.

The research team also discovered that an opposing mechanism came into play as the fortunes of traders were not so gainful. When earnings became more volatile and there was less stability in the market, the traders blood serum cortisol level raised significantly. The success and the physiological effect of that success seemed to go hand in hand. Failure operates with an opposing mechanism.

The results of this study were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Coates hypothesises that a positive loop of feedback exists in which the professional gains of success cause a successful male to receive a boost of testosterone as a result. This testosterone boost encourages the man to take further risk with his investments or other life decisions, and this has the ability to promote a form of aggressive upward mobility.

Testosterone and the Winner Effect

Coates feels that this hormonal process of testosterone is correlated with what many researchers and scientific theorists have labelled the winner effect. In any competition where one male or a group of males is at odds with another group and defeats the opposition, there is a linked Testosterone boost that has been proven to occur in the victor. This has been surveyed in both the animal and the human world and is very established theory.

To provide an example: Male deer are known to compete in a ferocious show of force in order to impress and win the affection of a potential mate. Two bucks wrestle with their antlers in order to earn the right to mate with their chosen love interest. The buck that pressures and intimidates his opponent into submission earns mating rightswhile also receiving a flush of testosterone as a result. In humans, the same effect has been seen in male athletes, from track and field competitors to professional boxers. This boost of Testosterone helps the male, giving them an advantage in aggression and assertive dominance.

As win after win mount up, the resulting boost can be tremendous. This could be likened to the concept of the alpha male. Eventually in a population, one male achieves so much success that he has rendered his competition into total submission. This Oxford study presents evidence that this same Testosterone feedback mechanism is at play in the ecosystem of financial trading.

Testosterone and the Stock Market

The great problem that Coates perceives, however, is that this positive Testosterone feedback can eventually lead to declining or even negative returns. He feels that if the average person perceives that the primary indicator of success in the stock market is testosterone; individuals may start to abuse the drug in an attempt to achieve personal gain. Another potential issue that results from testosterone elevation is that an individual may lose the ability to properly evaluate risk, and they will begin to take illogical chances without taking into account other factors that have led to their success besides assertiveness and fearlessness.

When the stock market goes on long streaks, it results in an excess of testosterone throughout the entire system. Risk-taking reaches levels which create danger and instability within the system. All of this risk eventually has the capacity to cause the system to collapse within itself. If this occurs in a financial market, the characteristics perpetuated by the opposite hormone begin to dominate the market.

Cortisol and the Stock Market

Stock market dives greatly increase stress levels across the board which physiologically leads to high levels of cortisol within the body as a result of all of the stress. Coates says that abnormally high cortisol levels lead to greater levels of anxiety and fearfulness. In addition to this, high levels of cortisol also hinder the judgment of the collective consciousness of the group, hindering the recovery and preventing normally savvy investors from making the most of their investments. He also is led to believe that elevated cortisol levels cause individuals to perceive the world far more dangerous than it actually is. High cortisol leads individuals to pathologically mistake opportunity for unacceptable risk.

This mistaken perception of unacceptable risk causes a form of mental paralysation that prevents the group from being successful. It subverts healthy and normal thinking and prevents the intelligent investor from doing that which is prudent to generate success. The boom created by success promoted by elevated testosterone levels eventually leads to a bust if elevated Testosterone levels are not held in check. The moral of Coates study is that physiological processes Such as High Testosterone mirror and amplify human cultural nature.

Testosterone and the Financial Boom-Bust Cycle

John Coates correlates this phenomenon to the financial bust which proceeded the gigantic and unsustainable tech bubble. Dr. Coates became intensely interested in the negative aspects and possible potential that Testosterone and cortisol attributed to the feeding frenzy that resulted from the boom of speculation that led to the dotcom bubble. Its clear that in situations such as financial speculation that there are factors at play beyond the normal logical processes of intelligent investment.

Excessive Testosterone is like Drug Abuse

The mental symptoms of large financial and speculative booms can be easily likened to a drug addiction. The extreme success caused by positive yet unsustainable market fluctuation blinds stockbrokers from their innate ability to take normal, conscious account of risk. An outside observer can come to these men with sound logic and explain the fundamental flaws inherent in the belief that tech prices or housing prices or stock market prices will increase in perpetuity, but these Testosterone-laden men will look at their past success, feel the rush caused by that success, and ignore the forest fire to see the beautiful foliage.

The All-Male Market

The culture of financial trading is an inherently male profession. There are very few women who make the move to the fast paced market culture, and for this reason it is dominated by Testosterone-laden men who amplify the rollercoaster ride of Wall Street and create immense volatility within the global financial market. Coates is of the belief that many men enter these professions because of the high potential for success combined with a penchant for thrill seeking.

Although in our evolutionary past, this mechanism of Testosterone Elevation promoted the propagation of the species, in a modern world where physical prowess and intimidation are no longer the sole traits which characterise success; there are numerous situations where excess Testosterone actually inhibits self-preserving function. There is obviously a psychological link between the rush of the Hormone Testosterone and the instability of the British, American, and global financial markets.

There are those within the trading community which agree with Dr. Coates. One British stock trader came forth and agreed that the mentality of the highly competitive risk-reward culture of the stock market performed within the doctors philosophical parameters. All people who engage in trading have to be able to accept a relatively high level of risk, but long term success has a tendency to numb professionals to the fear of failure, which contributes greatly to illogical risk-taking.

How to Relieve the Pressure of High Testosterone in the Market

Dr. Coates proposes a novel way to calm the stormy sea of the stock market. He is of the opinion that women should be encouraged to join the market trading profession in order to provide a hormonal counterweight which can temper the testosterone-fuelled cyclical nature of the national and global market scene. Perhaps there is a nugget of truth in Coates proposal. Testosterone is the key to male success, but feminine empathy and risk aversion may be just the remedy that finance needs to achieve greater stabilization

Relevance to the Conscious Evolution Institute:

Testosterone is one of the most influential hormones produced by the male body: perhaps even the most influential in breeding a mentality of strength which precipitates success. Although this article discusses many of the issues that are related to abnormally high levels of Testosterone, it also shows evidence that the opposite issue is also a factor as well. Low Testosterone levels have been proven to have a grossly negative effect on men both physically and mentally.

Testosterone and Mental Health

Patients who have low Testosterone levels are afflicted with a number of different psychological issues such as depression, anxiety, and lack of assertiveness. Healthy testosterone levels help men be more like themselves. It helps them make the most of their lives and maintain vitality and control over their own destiny.

The Dangers of Cortisol

Cortisol levels have been proven to be more dangerous to the male body than high levels of Testosterone. The goal of Testosterone Replacement Therapy is not to produce unnaturally high and unhealthy Testosterone levels. The goal of the treatment is to restore the levels of Testosterone that allow men to emulate their younger, more handsome, and more assertive selves.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy at the Conscious Evolution Institute

If you are interested in Testosterone HRT, you should know that the Conscious Evolution Institute is one of the best Anti-Aging facilities in the United States. We utilize proven treatment methods in order to resolve hormone deficiency o that we can help both men and women live longer and healthier lives. We want to help you make every day the best day of your life. We would love to take your call today!

Yours in Life, Love, and Vitality

The Conscious Evolution Institute


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 22 March 2013

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Dangers and Side Effects of Human Growth Hormone Abuse

Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy is an incredibly safe treatment option for patients who suffer from HGH Deficiency. There are few, if any, side-effects when Human Growth Hormone is prescribed by a medical professional and used safely and responsibly, but there are a number of side effects associated with the abuse of Human Growth Hormone.

Human Growth Hormone and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

HGH abuse has been linked to the exacerbation of Carpal Tunnel syndrome and arthritis. In some cases, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome occurs because edema (which is also caused by HGH abuse) over-hydrates the cells in the area of the wrist, increasing the pressure on the joint while also exacerbating underlying arthritis issues. Long term abuse may also directly cause Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, because HGH is an incredibly potent hormone which increases the rate at which bones and muscles grow, in addition to other organs. If the cartilage of the joints grow as a result of HGH Abuse, this can lead to increased pain and reduced ability to have a full range of motion with the wrists.

Human Growth Hormone and Arthritis

the Abuse of HGH can also lead to arthritis in individuals who choose to abuse the drug for an extended period of time. Arthritis occurs for the same reason as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Human Growth Hormone stimulates the growth of cartilage and bone which can cause joints to grow abnormally. Although after the epiphyseal plates close at the end of puberty the bones are no longer able to truly grow longer, they can still grow in a malformed way which can contribute to joint issues later in life.

Edema and Human Growth Hormone Abuse

Edema can occur after a short period of HGH Abuse. Edema is defined as excess water retention which causes parts of the body to bloat slightly. With HGH Abuse, edema occurs as a result of extracellular fluid. Edema, if left untreated, can cause a number of negative health issues. Edema in the legs, for example, can cause blood vessels and veins to break and rupture, preventing the body from circulating blood efficiently through the body. Clinical and anecdotal evidence regarding extracellular edema and Human Growth Hormone suggests that in the vast majority of cases edema is relieved quickly after abuse of HGH ends.

Gigantism and HGH Abuse

Gigantism is the result of Human Growth Hormone abuse in children and adolescents, and teenagers before the epiphyseal plates close at the end of puberty. This can cause children to grow too large for their frame and can lead to physiological complications later in life including joint pain and arthritis. Many younger individuals (or their unscrupulous parents or trainers) believe that they can use Human Growth Hormone to increase size advantage across the board in order for the youth to dominate in athletics.

The primary side effect of this is that the bones grow abnormally, which can actually make individuals more frail than they would be at their normal adult height. In addition to this, this form of HGH abuse can increase the size of internal organs, causing a plethora of negative health issues. Also, Gigantism can distort the features of the hands, feet, and face, leading to a decided neanderthal-like appearance. Generally, gigantism is the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain, such as was the case with Andre the Giant. There have, however, been cases where symptoms of gigantism have occurred as a result of adolescent Human Growth Hormone Overdose.

Acromegaly and Human Growth Hormone Overdose

Acromegaly in a way is the adult form of gigantism. Because the epiphyseal plates have closed, the adult body can no longer grow in height. Acromegaly is when the bones of the hands, feet, and face grow abnormally as a result of excess HGH levels. Long Term HGH overdose causes the bones to grow abnormally thick, calcifying more and more area around the bone and changing the entire shape of the bones, although not lengthening them meaningfully. This can lead to hands and feet prone to severe arthritis and wrists prone to carpal tunnel syndrome. Acromegaly is the one side-effect of Human Growth Hormone abuse that is not reversed by ending HGH abuse. Changes in bone structure are relatively permanent.

Diabetes and Human Growth Hormone Abuse

Although HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy can be highly beneficial for patients who suffer from diabetes, the abuse of HGH can be highly detrimental. Human Growth Hormone and Insulin are both hormones which work by effecting metabolism. Insulin regulates the breakdown of carbohydrates and sugars, while Human Growth Hormone encourages the breakdown of fat and increases cellular metabolism.

Human Growth Hormone converts into Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 in the liver, and has a similar molecular composition to Insulin. IGF-1 actually has the ability to compete with Insulin at receptor sites which can inhibit the ability of Insulin to regulate blood-sugar levels. This only generally occurs in the instance of HGH Abuse because Insulin receptor sites favor Insulin over IGF-1 by a large margin, and IGF-1 only crowds out Insulin when overdose occurs.

Hypothyroidism and Human Growth Hormone Abuse

In some cases, hypothyroidism can be unearthed as a result of HGH Deficiency. Human Growth Hormone does not cause hypothyroidism and there is actually evidence that HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy can treat Hypothyroidism, but Abuse of Growth Hormone can cause the Thyroid Gland to malfunction, secreting lower levels of Thyroid Hormone. After Human Growth Hormone Abuse has been suspended, the thyroid gland may be unable to function normally, decreasing energy levels and increasing the risk of weight gain immediately after therapy ends. The Thyroid gland plays an important role in both hunger and energy levels.

When thyroid hormone levels are low, the thyroid constantly sends a message of hunger, causing the body to store more fat and the brain to want more food. In addition to that, the constant hunger warning signal prevents other hormones from functioning properly and can exhaust both body and mind, leading to fatigue. Any patient who is interested in HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy should undergo testing for hypothyroidism as well, because hypothyroidism causes many symptoms of HGH Deficiency and may even be able to be treated with appropriately safe levels of Human Growth Hormone.

Liver Damage and HGH Abuse

If Human Growth Hormone levels in the blood stream are far too high, this can lead to permanent liver damage. The liver is only equipped to convert a certain amount of Human Growth Hormone at any particular time. When the body receives a long term overdose of HGH, this overloads the liver and causes the organ to take damage. The liver is one of the slowest to heal organs in the human body, and can easily be damaged permanently.

Also, liver damage is the primary reason why oral Human Growth Hormone and HGH Releasers should be avoided. Stomach acid breaks down both HGH and the components of Human Growth Hormone Releasers, sending rogue amino acid chains to the liver. If the liver is flooded with particular amino acids and enzymes, the organ can take heavy damage over time as a result.

Decreased Pituitary Gland Functional

For those who abuse HGH Injections, the excess Human Growth Hormone flooding the body actually causes the body to send signals to the pituitary gland to severely restrict endogenous release of Human Growth Hormone. This process is known as negative feedback, and when more Growth Hormone is introduced to the human body than the pituitary can physiologically create, this causes negative feedback mechanisms to ramp up to the absolute max.

Negative feedback can also sometimes reduce pituitary function in patients with HGH Deficiency as well. This is why for patients in their 30s, 40s, and 50s, it is often recommended for patients to take one or two days off from treatment per week in order to encourage the pituitary gland to continue to produce HGH as efficiently as possible. This is also why some doctors often recommend Sermorelin Acetate Therapy over HGH Injections. This allows the pituitary gland to produce more endogenous Human Growth Hormone by stimulating the pituitary with synthetic GH-RH.

There are other potential side-effects related to HGH abuse, but these are a few of the most well-known

How do I avoid the symptoms of HGH Abuse?

Do not use Human Growth Hormone if you have healthy endogenous HGH levels. Also, do not take HGH injections that exceed two units. There is a large amount of clinical evidence that Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy when used responsibly causes few or no significant side effects. Many men and women use Human Growth Hormone to enhance their athletic performance, and, in their quest to defeat their competition, take HGH injections which far exceed a healthy human dose. Side-effects from HGH Abuse tend to develop over time. There are few side effects that occur immediately and this tends to encourage individuals to abuse the highly potent hormone even more.

If you have abused Human Growth Hormone in the past, the good news is that most of the effects are reversible. There are certain issues such as acromegaly and liver damage that can not be reversed, but these are also the two symptoms that are the result of the severest forms of abuse.

Who should avoid Human Growth Hormone?

If you are a current cancer patient, you should avoid Human Growth Hormone. Although HGH has not been shown to cause cancer, there is still evidence that Human Growth Hormone may exacerbate existing malignant tumors. HGH's primary function in to increase cellular metabolism.

In healthy patients this is highly beneficial, but in patients with active cancers, this may exacerbate anti-cancer treatment. If you have a family history of cancer, you should be upfront and honest with your doctor so that you can discuss the potential risks of treatment, especially if you have a family history of reproductive and prostate cancer.

If you are currently being treated for an acute critical health issue you should avoid Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy until the medical issue is resolved. Issues such as heart or abdominal surgery may necessitate that you suspend HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy.

Women who are breastfeeding or pregnant should talk to their physician about the use of Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy, because it is unclear at this time whether HGH Injections effect the fetus or if HGH is secreted through the milk ducts.

Although there is evidence that HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy may be a beneficial way to treat diabetes, patients with diabetes should closely monitor blood-glucose levels because Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy and Diabetes both effect human metabolism in unique but somewhat interconnected ways.

All patients who consider HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy should be tested for other hormone disorders in order to ensure that HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy will provide the maximum benefit to the patient.

How to Avoid Side-Effects when Administering Bio-Identical Physician Prescribed Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy

When used correctly, HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy causes few or no side effects. There are a number of medical techniques that can be used to prevent the onset of symptoms such as edema and cranial hypertension as the body transitions to a new and healthier level of Human Growth Hormone. When HGH Therapy first begins, it is often recommended to start at a dose slightly lower than what your diagnostic testing may suggest. This is because every patient has unique Human Growth Hormone needs, and what may bring optimal health to one patient may induce minor side-effects in another.

If the body still seems like it could respond more vigorously to HGH Replacement, the dosage can be adjusted slightly upwards at a later date. In addition to this, Human Growth Hormone produces the fewest side effects when administered the most often. Another reason why those who abuse Human Growth Hormone suffer side effects is because they shoot themselves up with large doses which overwhelm the body. This is why it is generally recommended that patients with HGH deficiency inject themselves daily with Human Growth Hormone.

This helps the medication more closely mimic natural HGH production which helps the body respond more positively to the introduction of healthy levels of Human Growth Hormone. Some patients even opt to take two small injections twice a day. These patients tend to take one injection before bed and one injection just before physical exercise. These are the two periods of the day in which HGH secretion is at its peak.

Protocol for Safe and Effective Hormone Replacement Therapy

For all patients, HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy will feature a relatively low, yet potent dose of one to two units of Human Growth Hormone per day. This minimizes the risk of side-effects while maximizing the potential benefits of therapy.

For patients older than thirty five who are suffering from the symptoms of Andropause and display a diagnosed deficiency of Human Growth Hormone and IGF-1, the standard dose is no less than one and no more than 2 IU per injection. Although older patients may opt to undergo HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy seven days a week, younger patients in their thirties, forties, and fifties are generally recommended to only inject HGH Shots five consecutive days per week, taking two days off. These days off are generally during the weekend, but this is simply a matter of personal preference.

It is important to be aware of the dangers of Human Growth Hormone Abuse, but it also important to recognize that Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy is a safe and effective means to treat HGH Hormonal Deficiency that occurs as a natural result of the aging process. Although HGH Deficiency is a natural occurrence, it is not a life sentence. Today, HGH Injections have the ability to turn back the clock, allowing patients to bypass the dangers of Age-Related Human Growth Hormone Deficiency and increase the quality of their lives as they grow older.

HGH and Testosterone Hormone Replacement Therapy Often Beneficial in Combination

Both Human Growth Hormone and Testosterone tend to decline at similar rates. Many patients choose to combine HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy and Testosterone Injections in order to maximize the health benefits of alleviating the effects of Andropause.

If you feel that you may be suffering from the effects of HGH Deficiency or Testosterone Deficiency, the Conscious Evolution Institute has a high-quality, board certified staff that can set you on the path to your new life. The Conscious Evolution Institute only provides the highest quality physician-prescribed Hormone Replacement Therapies and our pleasant and knowledgeable staff will ensure that you get the best, fastest, and most cost-efficient treatments available. If you are interested in the highly effective treatments we provide, and think that we may be able to improve your life, we encourage you to contact us as soon as you can!

Yours in Health

The Conscious Evolution Institute

Also see: HGH Benefits 2


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 13 March 2014

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Bilingualism May Postpone Dementia

What is Dementia?

Dementia is a catch-all term for any neurological disorder which leads to the degradation of cognitive faculties. These disorders may have different root causes, but they all lead to the same series of symptoms, resulting from neurological damage to brain cells:

  • Gradual Loss of Communications Skills

  • Gradual Loss of Memory

  • Significant Attention Span Issues

  • Slow Decline in Visual Perception

Of all forms of Dementia, Alzheimer's is the most common, affecting more than 5 million people. Alzheimer's disease is one of the leading causes of death for men and women over the age of 65, with only four causes of death more common.

Canadian Dementia Study

Recently, a new study was released in Neuropsychologia regarding the connection between multilingualism and Dementia risk. This study was performed by researchers from the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, a clinical facility in Toronto, specializing in research and care for the elderly. The division of the Baycrest Centre responsible for this research was the Rotman Research Institute, and the head of the research team was Doctor Ellen Bialystok.

In this study, Dr. Bialystok and her team gathered a group of 184 recruits from the immediate vicinity of Toronto. All of the participants recruited were suffering from Dementia, and the researchers were concerned with both the age at which psychological deterioration began to occur and the number of languages that the participants could speak. They found that individuals that knew more than one language fluently lived four years longer before experiencing symptoms than their mono-lingual counterparts.

Impact of Bilingualism on Dementia Symptoms

In this particular study, women that only spoke one language started to show signs of Dementia at an average age of 71.9. Men showed symptoms slightly earlier, at the average age of 70.8. Men and women that knew more than one language, on the other hand, took longer to become symptomatic. Women that were multilingual started to show signs of Dementia at an average age of 75.1, and men started to show signs at an average age of 76.1.

The average when only taking age into account was 4.1 years. The results of this study were statistically significant, providing evidence that multilingual individuals took longer to develop Dementia's symptoms on average.

Dr. Bialystok explains that she hypothesized that multilingualism would have a positive impact on neurological health with regard to Dementia, but she was surprised that the difference was so significant. She says that when she first saw the results of the study, she was absolutely floored, because the hypothesis was so clearly demonstrated.

Neurological Benefit of Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Based on the results, Dr. Bialystok further hypothesizes that the neurological benefit of multilingualism seems to stem from understanding how to speak and communicate in multiple language, and is not related to other factors associated with communication, such as proper grammar or the way that the language was learned. In order to experience the neurological benefit, you simply have to know two language systems simultaneously.

Dementia Benefits Solely the Result of Knowing More than One Language

Based on prior research and the results of this particular study, the research team came to the conclusion that the neurological benefits of multilingualism are not the result of other potential related factors, such as immigration history, cultural inheritance, occupation, or education level. In fact, in this particular set of participants, the individuals that spoke a single language tended to be the most highly educated, but this did not seem to impact the significance of the results.

The Importance of this Dementia Study

Another member of the research team, Fergus Craik, explains that this study is important because it highlights how particular lifestyle circumstances can impact cognitive and neurological health later in the lifespan. Although there is no evidence that multilingualism has the ability to prevent Alzheimer's and Dementia, it clearly defers the onset of symptoms, which gives patients the opportunity to enjoy a few more years in good neurological health.

Scottish Study Examines Indian Dementia Patients

In a second, similar study, individuals that speak multiple languages have also been shown to first display symptoms of Dementia and Alzheimer's later in life. The results of this study were similar to the results of the Canadian study. In this study, patients lived slightly longer before experiencing Dementia symptoms, an average of 4.5 years longer.

This study was released in the academic journal, Neurology. The lead researcher and author of the study was Doctor Thoman Bak, and the study was financed by the University of Edinburgh.

This study, thus far, is the largest ever performed in order to assess the effects of multilingualism upon Dementia. Many previous studies focused primarily on Alzheimer's disease, but the authors hypothesized that the benefits of multilingualism would also apply to any elderly patient suffering from Dementia, even Frontotemporal and Vascular Dementia.

Psychological Requirements for Multilingualism are Significant

Doctor Bak explains that people that are multilingual use their brains in a unique way that is unlike individuals that only speak one language. It takes a significant amount of psychic energy to seamlessly be able to choose and speak a particular language when you have multiple languages at your disposal. It relies on the brains ability to be able to accurately choose the right language for the circumstances, while also suppressing the brain's ability to communicate in the second language.

This special skill gives the brain a unique form of exercise that is not easily replicated through other means, if it can be replicated at all. Knowing two or more languages gives certain locations in the brain a lot of extra stimulation that simply isn't afforded to people that only speak one language.

The name of the research piece is “Bilingualism Delays Age at Onset of Dementia, Independent of Education and Immigration Status.” Although this study was performed under the guidance and stewardship of the University of Edinburgh, the patients were from a location far from Ireland, in Hyderabad, India.

Why Choose Hyderabad?

Hyderabad is a fantastic location for studying the impact of multilingualism, because Hyderabad is a multicultural hotspot in which multiple languages are all active in the same area, and most residents of the city speak multiple languages, no matter how educated they are or what class they were brought up in.

Dementia Study Specifics

Researchers evaluated 648 subjects from Hyderabad that all suffered from Dementia. The average age of the patients was 62.2 years, and a bit more than half of the patients were multilingual.

The researchers in this study found similar results to the Canadian study: Individuals that were multilingual took 4.5 years longer to develop Dementia than their monolingual counterparts. This 4.5 year span persisted even when taking into account education level. Even participants that never received a day of formal education experienced the benefits of multilingualism.

In order to assess when patients started to experience signs and symptoms of Dementia, the researchers talked to caretakers and family members, asking them when the subjects started to show signs of degradation. For patients that only spoke one language, symptoms began to appear at 61.1 years of age. For patients that spoke multiple languages, symptoms did not appear until 65.6 years of age.

Hyderabad is a Cultural Melting Pot

Another reason why Hyderabad was selected as an ideal location to perform this study was because the multicultural aspect of the city is not the result of immigration, but the result of a genuine multiculturalism that has persisted over time. In most studies that had been previously performed, the majority of the participants were immigrants that learned another language as a result of moving to a new location. As a result of this, it was difficult to account for variables such as lifestyle, diet, and ethnicity.

The majority of the participants of this study were hereditary members of Hyderabad, with lineages that go back for generations. Some of the most common languages in the city are Dakkhini, Telugu, and Hindi.

This study provides definitive proof that the protection against Dementia afforded to multilingual patients is not the result of extenuating factors but definitively as a result of knowing more than one language.

Knowing More than Two Languages No Better than Only Knowing Two

Interestingly enough, the benefits provided by being multilingual were no greater than being bilingual. Simply being able to communicate in two or more languages is enough to experience maximum benefit. Another important point is that it is not important to be fluent in multiple languages, but simply to be able to communicate with others effectively.

Hyderabad provides a unique way to look at and understand the effects of multilingualism in the rawest sense. In many countries, especially in the West, second languages are taught rather than simply learned. In India, there are so many dominant languages in a small area, that it is very easy to learn two or more languages passively in one's everyday life.

Education Not a Factor in Dementia Benefits

One subset of the participants in the study were completely illiterate, but the benefits of multilingualism were just as strong among those in this group as those that were highly educated. Multilingualism is not the result of class or education or any other lifestyle factor. The benefits are purely the result of the unique mental exercise that comes with knowing and understanding more than one language.

Using Multiple Languages is Like Swimming

The lead researcher compared multilingualism to the act of swimming. Although many other physical activities are good for the health, swimming simultaneously works every muscle in the body. The same seems to be true of bilingualism and the mind. There's just so much involved. You have to recognize and interpret two entirely different language systems. You also have to understand the subtle cues and social norms that are at play simply in speaking a second language.

Stress Increases the Risk of Alzheimer's Among Women

A recent study provides evidence that stress not only negatively impacts cardiovascular health, but also increases the risk of experiencing Alzheimer's disease. One group that seems to be particularly at risk is middle-aged women. At this point, there is no causal evidence regarding why, but there is a definite positive correlation between mid-life stress and Alzheimer's Disease among female patients.

This study was developed at Swedish Gothenburg University by Lena Johansson, a member of the University's Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology.

There is a definitely link between stress and Alzheimer's as proven by Dr. Johansson's study, but there have yet to be studies which have sought to show exactly how strong mid-life stress is as a predictor of Alzheimer's risk, especially in comparison to other influences such as high blood pressure, smoking, diet, and poverty. All of these factors were controlled for in this study, but future studies will have to compare the relative impact of all of these different risks on general health.

The Results of this Alzheimer's Study Also Apply to Men

Johansson's study only examined middle-aged women, but there is no evidence that the results would be any different for men. There are certain aspects of Alzheimer's and Dementia risk that are correlated with gender, but most risk factors have similar impacts on core risk based specifically upon gender.

Alzheimer's Study Data

The results of this study have been derived from a larger multipurpose study that began in 1968. At the time this study began, all of the women were 38 years or older. Among these participants, eight hundred were regularly evaluated with regard to psychological health and well-being a minimum of once every ten years until 2005.

Johansson and her research partners evaluated the data with regard to eighteen life-events that tend to have a negative impact on well-being, including widowhood, divorce, and family illness, and how individual subjects responded to these life events.

In addition to compiling data related to stress, they also collected data regarding psychiatric evaluation and hospital records in order to determine which patients eventually developed Dementia. By the final year of the study, 153 of the 800 women experienced Dementia, and 104 of those cases were Alzheimer's Disease.

Stress and Dementia are Correlated

Researchers found a strong correlation between mid-life stress and Dementia. For every stress factor that the participants were experiencing in 1968, the potential for experiencing Alzheimer's disease by the end of the study increased by around twenty percent.

There was also a strong correlation found between extended bouts of distress and increased risk of Alzheimer's, without regard to the number of individual stressful events experienced.

No Evidence that Stress Directly Causes Alzheimer's

This study does not show that stress directly causes Alzheimer's, but that it simply increases the risk of experiencing the condition. There is a significant chance that stress only heightens the impact of other factors, such as high blood pressure, and does not directly cause Alzheimer's in a vacuum.

In spite of this lack of direct correlation, there are still many that are incredibly optimistic with regard to the results of this study. A representative of the Rush University Medical Center, Robert S. Wilson, explains that this study is the strongest evidence thus far connecting psychological stress with Dementia and Alzheimer's. It will take more research to further illuminate that link, but the correlation is definitively there.

Deal with Stress to Delay Alzheimer's

Everyone responds to stress in their own personal way, but it appears that the general pressures of stressful life events impact all people in a similar way. There are numerous ways that chronic stress impacts health, wellness, and longevity, even if the stress is relatively minor. These stressors have the potential to affect any family, and it shows the importance of managing stress effectively in order to live a longer and healthier life.

This doesn't mean that people that experience these life events should fret too much, however. Stress is just one factor that contributes to Dementia and Alzheimer's, and not everyone that experiences a lot of stress goes on to develop these neurological conditions.

The important thing is to recognize how forces in your life like stress can affect your long-term health, and that there are efforts you can take to minimize the effects and threat of chronic stress. In the end, the contribution that stress has on Dementia is likely less than other factors such as blood pressure and smoking.

Alzheimer's is an Epidemic Disease among the Elderly Today

Because of the prevalence of Alzheimer's, it is imperative that we understand why Alzheimer's occurs and what can be done to mitigate the risk and one day even perhaps cure the disease. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that by the age of eighty five, almost fifty percent of men and women may be suffering from the initial stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

Alzheimer' affects both those that have Alzheimer's and those that love them. As life expectancies continue to increase, Alzheimer's will start to become more of a health hazard as more men and women live to an age where the disease becomes more prevalent.

This study demonstrates just one of many reasons why stress reduction should be a routine aspect of general healthcare, especially as men and women grow older. Many people think of common stressors as inevitable life events that one simply has to struggle through, but there is growing evidence that life events can impact health years and decades down the road, and techniques for stress reduction such as psychiatric help, exercise, and talking about one's emotions will likely provide significant psychiatric benefits further down the line.

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