Hormone Replacement Therapy
Glossary of terminology
Triphosphate (ATP): The primary building blocks of life used by the
cells for them to operate and create reactions that can support life.
These are the glands that are known to produce hormones linked to
stress. Some of the hormones produced include andadrenaline, cortisol
Hormone (ACTH): This will facilitate the production of cortisol and
DHEA through its interaction with the adrenal gland receptors.
Released through the pituitary glands, this can signal specific cells
in the adrenal glands using the cyclic AMP.
Glycosylation Endproduct: These are known to cross link with glucose.
When the AGE will stick to the capillaries and arteries, there will
be an increased risk for kidney problems, blindness and even heart
problems. One can estimate its level through a blood test by
verifying the level of glycosylated hemoglobin.
Capacity: Considered as the capacity to produce oxygen. The levels
produced are influenced by the size of the capillary, rate of pumping
in the heart, capacity of the lungs and also the rate in which oxygen
is transferred from the red blood cells into some of the tissues of
Exercise: The intent of this exercise it to deliver the right amount
of oxygen to the muscle cells without lactic acid build-up. This is
recommended for persons who want to lower the levels of glucose and
The expected decline in the quality of the person’s body as he
Acids: Recommended parts of the diet since protein are produced
through these. There are eight important amino acids.
This is that part of the brain that comes up with emotions.
Exercise: As opposed to aerobic exercise, this will lead to the
development of lactic acid. This will help facilitate the development
of growth hormone and can also promote the synthesis of testosterone.
Steroids: These facilitate the development of muscles and lessen the
effects of virilization of testosterone.
Zone Lifestyle Pyramid: Through this, the four pillars of aging are
reduced. These four pillars include insulin, blood glucose, cortisol
and free radicals. To make this happen the pyramid will include
certain physical activities, zone diet and meditation. Of the many
components, the zone diet is considered the major component.
Acid: considered as the immediate precursor to unhealthy eicosanoids.
This fatty acid is normally found in organ meats, egg yolks and even
fatty red meat.
Hormones: These are used to test the environment that surrounds a
cell. Good example is the Eicosanoid.
Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH): considered as the normal enlargement of
the prostrate tissue of a man as he grows old. There are some
instances when urinating will be made difficult because of this.
Proteins: Binds with water-soluble hormones including sex hormones
and cortisol. Also will bind naturally to insulin growth factor and
in the process helps manage the right levels of hormones found on the
person’s blood stream.
Marker of Aging: These are the accepted physiological markers that
appear in almost all persons who age.
Response Modifier: Molecules that can change how the cells can
respond to the environment around it.
Glucose: The brain takes much of its energy from the blood glucose.
If this is found to be at higher levels, it can lead to diabetes and
aging takes on a faster rate.
Oxalate Kidney Stones: This is a type of stone that may develop in
the person’s kidneys. These stones can’t be dissolved easily and
it will take an x-ray check for the doctor to confirm its presence.
Restriction: way of reducing the calorie amount that can help in the
maintenance of the right levels of essential fats and proteins. This
can also offer the body with the right amount of minerals and
Hormone (CRH): It is the main player in the production of the ACTH.
To produce this, it will need to interact with the pituitary gland.
Traversed from the hypothalamus, this will use the cyclic AMP.
When there’s stress or the level of blood glucose is low, cortisol
is produced by the adrenal glands. If a person is stressed, the body
will stop the synthesis of eicosanoid.
AMP: Commonly referred to as the second messenger used to start off a
number of biological procedures. This is known to be sourced from the
ATP. The endocrine hormones are known to use this.
GMP: Considered as the secondary hormone that can help jumpstart
biological procedures started by the hormone. This is induced by the
nitric oxide compound.
(DHEA): This helps to prevent cortisol from binding in the body.
Another form of steroid hormone sourced from the glands named adrenal
This develops when the production of the blood-glucose can’t be
controlled. There are two types, Type I and II. For Type 1, there is
no insulin production. For Type II, there’s an over production of
A neurotransmitter that operates with the serotonin.
Produced from every cell of the body, this is made from
polyunsaturated fat and 20 carbon compound atom. This is regularly
produced by each cell of the body in order to test the surround
environment. Also, Goodeicosanoids produce AMP.
Hormones: These are usually found in the gland that is discrete gland
and moves on the blood stream to reach body tissues.
It is the science of hormones and how hormones and biological
A process wherein the extra cellular molecules will join a cell in
Cells: These can be found on the system called vascular system and
serves as a barrier between cells and blood stream. Hormones are
expected to pass through the barriers to get to the receptors to
start the biological processes.
Its release from pituitary gland will help alleviate the pain. To
release the B-lipotropin, the cyclic AMP is needed.
Fatty Acids: Essential fatty acids should be element of the daily
diet since the body cannot produce these naturally. Two fatty acids
that are important include the omega-3 and the omega-6 that can help
produce eicosanoids compound.
Dysfunction (ED): Simply called ED, this is the lack of ability of
the male to sustain an erect penis during sexual intercourse.
These are the three groups of steroid hormones to carry the female
attributes and to manage the fertilization. These are stimulated by
the hormone named “follicle-stimulating” and also make use of the
The procedure in which intra cellular chemicals are freed.
Hormone (FSH): Once traversed from the gland named pituitary this
will help in the production of estrogens and sperms. This makes use
of the cyclic AMP.
Radical: When a molecule contains the unpaired electron then it’s
called a free radical. This can act on other bio-molecules to form
free radicals more.
It is the capability to live without assistance.
This is where your hormones are secreted. There are different glands
that are found in different parts of the body including the brain, in
the area of throat, in the person’s mid section and one can be
found in the area of gonad. The gland for female is the ovary and
testes for the male.
This helps in the restoration of the blood glucose levels. This is
sourced from the areas of pancreas and acts on the carbohydrates
found in liver. To start its biological process this will need the
It is the simple carbohydrate flowing in the person’s blood stream
and also is the major fuel for the brain. This is also in the muscles
and liver as your glycogen compound.
Tolerance: This will refer to the capacity of the liver and muscle
cells to take out glucose from blood stream. It is expected that the
tolerance will eventually decrease as the person ages.
Index: Used as a measure to tell how fast the carbohydrate will join
bloodstream in the form of glucose. Not all carbohydrates can join
the bloodstream at similar rates. For example, table sugar is known
to join the blood stream slower if you compare it to other
carbohydrates like potatoes and rice. Higher glycemic index means
that the carbohydrate will join the bloodstream at a faster rate and
this will mean increase in the level of insulin. Lower glycemic index
can be linked to fruits and vegetables.
Glucose in its stored form. The liver is the source of glycogen that
could be used for managing the levels of glucose in the body.
Hemoglobin: This is the management of the blood glucose which will
depend on the percentage of hemoglobin that is carbohydrate-modified
that can be found in the blood cells that are red. Glycosylated
Hemoglobin in higher level will mean that control of the blood
glucose will be at its worst.
Hormone: This will help release the fatty acids and help in the
production of insulin-related growth hormones. To help release the
fatty acids, it needs to be move from the pituitary gland and should
act with fat cells.
Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH): This will cause for the emission of
the growth hormone of the pituitary gland. Released from the
hypothalamus, this will need the cyclic structured AMP as its
A condition wherein red colored blood cells can be found in the
urine. This is linked to a number of diseases and conditions
including kidney stones, kidney disease, urinary tract cancer and
even UTI. Tests like x-ray and CT scan are normally used to check the
Density Lipoprotein (HDL): Considered as healthy cholesterol that
allows the lipid-like cholesterol to be moved to the water-based
blood stream and take it out from the cells. The level of HDL will
normally go down when insulin is up.
A major component of the brain that belongs to limbic system and
plays important role in integrating incoming nerve impulsion to the
area of hypothalamus. It is the main memory center too or
storage area of brain.
Compounds that send out messages and information. There
are specific receptors required for the hormones for beginning of
their biological processes and uses secondary messengers to start
cellular process, which depends on the same data.
therapy: One of the major therapeutic methods of medical
treatment for cancer. This therapy is regarding the matter that
cells of prostate cancer frequently use male hormones (like
testosterone) using as fertilizer as well as the deficiency of
testosterone turns into the elimination (apoptosis) of some cells of
prostate cancer. Consequently, the use of hormonal therapy
helps many patients having untreatable prostate cancer especially in
the Stage D and the late Stage C of improving their superiority of
life and extending their lives.
Releasing Factors: These are hormones whose main purpose is to
control the emission of the other hormones secreted by the
hypothalamus into bloodstream that directly affect the pituitary.
Cyclic AMP is used as their second messengers by many hormone
This is a term of condition where there are excessive levels of
moving insulin in blood. This is generally a result of resistance of
insulin where the cells are unresponsive to insulin that lower or
decrease the levels of blood glucose.
A part of the brain’s structure that contains a number of small
nuclei that synthesizes and acts on information and manages the
discharge of some hormones that push the pituitary to send out
This is referred to as uncontrollable urination. This normally
happens in babies but in time they can control the urge to urinate.
Different people will experience different kinds of pain and
inconvenience but the good news is that this issue can be well
It is a hormone that is central to regulating and incoming driving
nutrients to the cells for the storage in the body. Aging is also
linked to insulin.
Growth Factor (IGF): These are polypeptides or hormones discharged
from liver in reaction to the growth hormone. It is IGF-1 which is a
hormone mainly secreted by the liver as a result of stimulation by
growth hormone that is responsible for normal physiology and building
Resistance: It is a condition, briefly said physiological condition
when the cells are no longer responding appropriately to insulin. The
natural insulin loses efficiency at lowering the blood sugars in
which the body emits more insulin to bloodstream.
A sexual dysfunction in which a man cannot maintain erection of his
penis that can formalize a sexual engagement. Factors that cause this
condition can be stress with psychological factors; though, it is
reported that this sexual problem is primarily linked to a number of
health problems including heart problems and issues.
Space: It is the space that is between endothelial and target
Pyelogram (IVP): This is a procedure where dye of iodine is
introduced into the many veins of the arms. The dye travels through
the body and is absorbed well by kidneys and goes out into bladder.
The x-ray test could identify abnormalities of the urinary tract like
tumors of kidney, bladder, and ureter. Kidney stones may be diagnosed
by this procedure as well.
Body Mass: Total fat-free mass or bodyweight of the body. Lean body
mass have of all its components like water, collagen, bones, and
muscle except neutral storage lipid.
Expectancy: It is the average longevity of life or age when 50% of
newborn babies will live.
System: An area in the brain tasked with the more primitive
reactions and also facilitates the biological homeostasis.
The duration or part of maximum lifetime expectancy that a case of
organism will occur before death.
Hormone (LH): Hormone that is essential in reproduction. It is
secreted from the pituitary, which is the cause stimulation of the
production of the testosterone (males) and production of the
progesterone (females). Its second ranked messenger is the cyclic
Stones: These are tiny crystals formed in the tubal system of the
kidney. These crystals meet and cling together to create a larger
solid mass. It grows in kidneys and after that moves in the path of
urinary tract. These can also grow in the bladder. In many cases,
stone production can be linked to urinary blockage that is chronic in
nature or infection, or various protein starvation normal in
developing countries. Stones can also grow in the prostrate due to
infection. There are different kinds of stones that develop in
people and the most popular are the calcium oxalate. The problem with
these stones is that they can’t be seen by the eye.
Top examples of this are the carbohydrates, fats and proteins. This
offers most of the energy that can help comes up with hormone
Life Span: This is the longest time that an organism is expected to
Considered as an antioxidant and released by the gland named pineal.
This is also known to control and manage the circadian rhythms and
other biological procedures.
Highly recommended for humans in order to facilitate a number of
biological processes. Some top examples include minerals and vitamins
that will not have impacts on the hormonal responses.
Doubling Time: Time amount that may be required because of the rate
of death to grow two-fold after reaching adult age.
Oxide: Called nitrogen monoxide, this will help produce cyclic GMP
that can help relax the smooth muscle tissues. This is also called as
a specimen of free radical and prohormone.
Fatty Acids: Can be sourced from fishes of cold water or from fish
oils. It is said that these fatty acids are best for the heart.
Fatty Acids: Another example of the fatty acids (polyunsaturated)
that can be sourced from seed oils or vegetables. Both bad and good
eicosanoids can be sourced from this type of fatty acid.
Prosthesis: This is an implant that is inserted into chambers of the
penis as a way to address the Peyronie’s Disease. Patient doesn’t
need to stay for long in the hospital.
Body Fat: The amount of fat in relation to the whole body weight. If
the percentage body fat is considered high then there’s a higher
risk for certain diseases like diabetes and heart diseases.
Disease: This will happen if there’s a sustained injury in the wall
of the penile chamber or may happen for no reason at all. The tissue
if left unattended can deform the penis which can result in bending.
The scar that can be formed in a PD can shorten the size or may help
prevent future erections.
This is the part of the brain that acts and produces melatonin.
This is the main gland that releases most of the hormones into the
person’s blood stream. Some of the hormones that are released by
this gland include the ACTH, B-lipocortin, growth hormone, FSH and so
This happens when the erection goes for a long period of time and
will not naturally end. This is liked to a penis injection therapy
where the stiffness can happen for the next four hours. Also, experts
say that this is linked to sickle cell anemia and may also occur
after a person takes Trazodone.
This is generated to respond to the production of luteinizing hormone
(LH) that comes from the pituitary gland. This is the hormone that
will flush out the person’s uterus once the egg is not fertilized.
Also used for helping grow the new bone mass.
These will take the characteristics of the natural progesterone.
Blood Test: This will stand for Prostatic Specific Antigen and used
to validate prostate cancer. Once elevated, then it’s one
indication of the cancer.
Gland: The small gland that is located at the base of the person’s
bladder. The nutrients that are produced here are used to support the
growth of the sperm. The prostate gland may enlarge as the person
grows old and may cause difficulty in urination and may even lead to
This is a common problem of the prostate gland that may be
experienced by a man at any point of his life. The disease can be
chronic, allergic and acute and sometimes it has been reported that
this can be psychosomatic as well. Though this condition is not life
threatening, still the feeling is unpleasant to the person. Do keep
in mind that prostate cancer and this condition are not one and the
same. Also this condition will not lead to cancer. You will find
three general types of this condition called the bacterial
prostatitis, non-bacterial or inflammatory prostatitis and chronic
pain in the prostate as a type of non-bacterial prostatitis.
It identifies a unique hormone. The moment a hormone binds with this,
information carried by the hormone can start a biological process.
Messenger: These are the molecules that will help start a number of
biological processes of the hormones.
Analysis: This will refer to the testing of the sperm and seminal
fluid. This is the kind of test where the amount of sperm is checked,
the acidity and its volume. Also, through this test the infection
will be verified.
Vesicles: These are the seminal vesical sacts found just behind the
prostate that will all the fluids generated by the gland. The fluid
is the same seminal fluid ejected by the male when he becomes
sexually engaged. This is the same fluid that will nourish the sperm.
This will help filter out information. If the level of the neuro
transmitter is low, then this will cause for violence or depression
in the person.
Kidney Stones: All stones are formed from different kinds of
molecules. Examples are the Struvite Kidney Stones that are usually
linked to urinary infection and the main signs that are checked in
persons with UTI or urinary tract infection. These stones are only
visible through the x-ray. During its early stages of development the
bladder symptoms may be observed and the development of these stones
will not be checked thus may destroy the kidneys in the process.
A part of the nuclear DNA that comes shorter when the DNA replicates.
Once the certain length of the segment has been reached, the DNA will
no longer replicate.
This helps in the buildup of libido for both men and women and can
also help in the build-up of muscle mass.
The main producer of the T-lymphocytes, examples of white cells that
can help build the immune capability of the body. This gland may be
affected by excessive amount of cortisol.
Found on the throat, the gland acts on the thyroid hormones which in
turn influence the person’s metabolism.
Hormone (TRH): This will instruct the pituitary gland to come up with
Hormone (TSH): This is the hormone that helps the thyroid gland come
up with T4. To synthesize the T4, the AMP will be used as the
secondary cyclic AMP.
Rectal Ultrasound (TRUS): This is a special type of test wherein a
probe will be used include the rectum in order to generate ultrasound
pictures of the prostate gland. This test is not as reliable as the
Prostatic Specific Antigen. This is non-diagnostic though this can
help in directing biopsies. Through this test, the attending doctors
can learn more about the shape and size of the prostate and to verify
if the cancer has spread. But this is not normally used to verify if
indeed the cancer is already present. This is done as a complement to
(TG): Fat that can be found in many lipoproteins of the blood stream.
If there’s a high level of insulin then there’s a chance that
there’s a high level of Triglycerides. The level of TG and HDL is
indicative of the risk for potential heart problems.
2 Diabetes: This happens when insulin is produced in greater numbers
and associated with the production of AGE. This is also linked to
decrease in lifespan.
Synthesized in the peripheral tissue and considered as another form
Another hormone released by the thyroid gland produced as a response
to TSH and also produces the cyclic AMP.
Acid Kidney Stones: Kidney stones are normally crystal molecules or
can be formed by combining with other elements. Common examples of
these stones are the Uric Acid Kidney Stones which are common to
people suffering from gout or high in uric acid. Just like other
stones, these can’t be checked through the naked eye. Doctors may
need x-ray or other tests like IVP, spiral CT scans
The development of these stones can be hereditary and may be
influenced by a meat-rich diet. This can be addressed medically.
Nucleus (VMN): Found in the hypothalamus that can be influenced by
too much glucose.
This happens when the veins get dilated due to the draining of the
blood that starts from the testicles to the body. The sperm may be
injured in the process due to heat and increased blood. This
condition can be addressed by surgery.
This is referred to as a birth control technique through surgery
where the tubes that carry the sperm are cut. This is a simple
procedure that can be done without scalpel and without confinement.
Deferens: this will carry the sperm from the epididymis to the
testicle. Thick muscles are located inside the tube to help move the
Kidney Stones: There are different kinds of stones and most are made
from crystal molecules or can combine with other elements. Examples
of these are the Xanthine kidney stones. These stones are
considered rare and can run in the family. These stones can be
checked using an x-ray and can be addressed by a special kind of
Diet: A diet primarily known for restricting the amount of calories
but offers the dieters the recommended levels of protein, fats and
nutrients. This dieting plan is composed of three meals and two
snacks with the objective of maintaining the ideal protein and
carbohydrate ratio on a single day.