Zip Code: 05664 Washington Northfield Falls 9.54 Miles
Zip Code: 05041 Orange East Randolph 10.09 Miles
Zip Code: 05038 Orange Chelsea 10.88 Miles
Zip Code: 05673 Washington Waitsfield 12.46 Miles
Zip Code: 05748 Addison Hancock 13.35 Miles
Zip Code: 05767 Windsor Rochester 13.46 Miles
Zip Code: 05601 Washington Montpelier 13.6 Miles
Zip Code: 05670 Washington South Barre 13.65 Miles
Zip Code: 05766 Addison Ripton 14.02 Miles
Zip Code: 05654 Washington Graniteville 14.12 Miles
Zip Code: 05675 Orange Washington 14.44 Miles
Zip Code: 05077 Orange Tunbridge 14.72 Miles
Zip Code: 05660 Washington Moretown 14.81 Miles
Zip Code: 05678 Washington Websterville 14.93 Miles
Zip Code: 05649 Washington East Barre 15.37 Miles
Zip Code: 05604 Washington Montpelier 16.15 Miles
Zip Code: 05032 Windsor Bethel 16.16 Miles
Zip Code: 05620 Washington Montpelier 16.6 Miles
Zip Code: 05633 Washington Montpelier 16.6 Miles
Zip Code: 05603 Washington Montpelier 16.6 Miles
Zip Code: 05641 Washington Barre 16.88 Miles
Zip Code: 05609 Washington Montpelier 17.85 Miles
Zip Code: 05602 Washington Montpelier 17.85 Miles
Zip Code: 05666 Washington North Montpelier 18.01 Miles
Zip Code: 05443 Addison Bristol 18.21 Miles
Zip Code: 05772 Windsor Stockbridge 18.98 Miles
Zip Code: 05487 Addison Starksboro 19.14 Miles
Zip Code: 05651 Washington East Montpelier 19.97 Miles
Zip Code: 05079 Orange Vershire 20.02 Miles
Zip Code: 05740 Addison East Middlebury 20.23 Miles
Zip Code: 05072 Orange Strafford 20.41 Miles
Zip Code: 05667 Washington Plainfield 20.58 Miles
Zip Code: 05039 Orange Corinth 20.62 Miles
Zip Code: 05068 Windsor South Royalton 20.68 Miles
Zip Code: 05671 Washington Waterbury 20.71 Miles
Zip Code: 05762 Rutland Pittsfield 20.83 Miles
Zip Code: 05746 Windsor Gaysville 21.17 Miles
Zip Code: 05769 Addison Salisbury 21.75 Miles
Zip Code: 05070 Orange South Strafford 21.91 Miles
Zip Code: 05031 Windsor Barnard 21.97 Miles
Zip Code: 05745 Rutland Forest Dale 22.53 Miles
Zip Code: 05462 Chittenden Huntington 23.01 Miles
Zip Code: 05065 Windsor Sharon 23.49 Miles
Zip Code: 05086 Orange West Topsham 23.56 Miles
Zip Code: 05472 Addison New Haven 23.62 Miles
Zip Code: 05753 Addison Middlebury 23.77 Miles
Zip Code: 05083 Orange West Fairlee 24.01 Miles
Zip Code: 05640 Washington Adamant 24.1 Miles
Zip Code: 05733 Rutland Brandon 24.12 Miles
Zip Code: 05076 Orange Topsham 24.25 Miles
Zip Code: 05058 Orange Post Mills 24.28 Miles
Zip Code: 05677 Washington Waterbury Center 24.57 Miles
Zip Code: 05053 Windsor North Pomfret 24.84 Miles
Zip Code: 05676 Washington Waterbury 25.07 Miles
Zip Code: 05040 Orange East Corinth 25.12 Miles
Zip Code: 05763 Rutland Pittsford 25.33 Miles
Zip Code: 05650 Washington East Calais 25.5 Miles
Zip Code: 05658 Washington Marshfield 25.7 Miles
Zip Code: 05469 Addison Monkton 25.7 Miles
Zip Code: 05737 Rutland Chittenden 25.82 Miles
Zip Code: 05046 Caledonia Groton 25.95 Miles
Zip Code: 05466 Chittenden Jonesville 26.29 Miles
Zip Code: 05067 Windsor South Pomfret 26.33 Miles
Zip Code: 05075 Orange Thetford Center 26.47 Miles
Zip Code: 05682 Washington Worcester 26.61 Miles
Zip Code: 05084 Windsor West Hartford 26.85 Miles
Zip Code: 05751 Rutland Killington 26.94 Miles
Zip Code: 05045 Orange Fairlee 27.07 Miles
Zip Code: 05648 Washington Calais 27.21 Miles
Zip Code: 05778 Addison Whiting 27.47 Miles
Zip Code: 05033 Orange Bradford 27.58 Miles
Zip Code: 05473 Addison North Ferrisburg 27.71 Miles
Zip Code: 05662 Lamoille Moscow 27.74 Miles
Zip Code: 05055 Windsor Norwich 27.85 Miles
Zip Code: 05461 Chittenden Hinesburg 27.97 Miles
Zip Code: 05477 Chittenden Richmond 28.08 Miles
Zip Code: 05074 Orange Thetford 28.46 Miles
Zip Code: 05091 Windsor Woodstock 28.9 Miles
Zip Code: 05054 Orange North Thetford 29.38 Miles
Zip Code: 05051 Orange Newbury 29.62 Miles
Zip Code: 05035 Windsor Bridgewater Corners 29.67 Miles
Zip Code: 05744 Rutland Florence 29.68 Miles
Zip Code: 05043 Orange East Thetford 29.7 Miles
Zip Code: 05059 Windsor Quechee 30.05 Miles
Zip Code: 05701 Rutland Rutland 30.07 Miles
Zip Code: 05672 Lamoille Stowe 30.5 Miles
Zip Code: 05456 Addison Ferrisburg 30.51 Miles
Zip Code: 05085 Orange West Newbury 30.64 Miles
Zip Code: 05001 Windsor White River Junction 30.82 Miles
Zip Code: 05073 Windsor Taftsville 31 Miles
Zip Code: 05491 Addison Vergennes 31.02 Miles
Zip Code: 05765 Rutland Proctor 31.37 Miles
Zip Code: 05445 Chittenden Charlotte 31.51 Miles
Zip Code: 05770 Addison Shoreham 31.6 Miles
Zip Code: 05681 Washington Woodbury 31.74 Miles
Zip Code: 05069 Caledonia South Ryegate 31.85 Miles
Zip Code: 05047 Windsor Hartford 32.08 Miles
Zip Code: 05862 Caledonia Peacham 32.12 Miles
Zip Code: 05465 Chittenden Jericho 32.19 Miles
Zip Code: 05647 Washington Cabot 32.28 Miles
Zip Code: 05088 Windsor Wilder 32.3 Miles
Zip Code: 05702 Rutland Rutland 32.43 Miles
Zip Code: 05034 Windsor Bridgewater 32.54 Miles
Zip Code: 05734 Addison Bridport 32.6 Miles
Zip Code: 05081 Orange Wells River 32.73 Miles
Zip Code: 05495 Chittenden Williston 32.87 Miles
Zip Code: 05042 Caledonia East Ryegate 33.1 Miles
Zip Code: 05009 Windsor White River Junction 33.31 Miles
Zip Code: 05490 Chittenden Underhill Center 33.65 Miles
Zip Code: 05736 Rutland Center Rutland 33.78 Miles
Zip Code: 05760 Addison Orwell 33.9 Miles
Zip Code: 05071 Windsor South Woodstock 34 Miles
Zip Code: 05482 Chittenden Shelburne 34.37 Miles
Zip Code: 05048 Windsor Hartland 35.01 Miles
Zip Code: 05738 Rutland Cuttingsville 35.07 Miles
Zip Code: 05735 Rutland Castleton 35.28 Miles
Zip Code: 05661 Lamoille Morrisville 35.32 Miles
Zip Code: 05052 Windsor North Hartland 35.44 Miles
Zip Code: 05489 Chittenden Underhill 35.57 Miles
Zip Code: 05050 Caledonia Mc Indoe Falls 35.65 Miles
Zip Code: 05657 Lamoille Lake Elmore 35.73 Miles
Zip Code: 05680 Lamoille Wolcott 36.03 Miles
Zip Code: 05821 Caledonia Barnet 36.07 Miles
Zip Code: 05403 Chittenden South Burlington 36.2 Miles
Zip Code: 05407 Chittenden South Burlington 36.28 Miles
Zip Code: 05777 Rutland West Rutland 36.5 Miles
Zip Code: 05056 Windsor Plymouth 36.53 Miles
Zip Code: 05759 Rutland North Clarendon 36.8 Miles
Zip Code: 05049 Windsor Hartland Four Corners 36.92 Miles
Zip Code: 05453 Chittenden Essex Junction 36.94 Miles
Zip Code: 05732 Rutland Bomoseen 37.37 Miles
Zip Code: 05843 Caledonia Hardwick 37.48 Miles
Zip Code: 05451 Chittenden Essex 37.51 Miles
Zip Code: 05750 Rutland Hydeville 37.73 Miles
Zip Code: 05731 Rutland Benson 37.8 Miles
Zip Code: 05062 Windsor Reading 37.86 Miles
Zip Code: 05873 Caledonia West Danville 37.9 Miles
Zip Code: 05402 Chittenden Burlington 38.17 Miles
Zip Code: 05452 Chittenden Essex Junction 38.26 Miles
Zip Code: 05861 Caledonia Passumpsic 38.56 Miles
Zip Code: 05405 Chittenden Burlington 38.8 Miles
Zip Code: 05743 Rutland Fair Haven 39.17 Miles
Zip Code: 05404 Chittenden Winooski 39.24 Miles
Zip Code: 05836 Caledonia East Hardwick 39.57 Miles
Zip Code: 05406 Chittenden Burlington 40.12 Miles
Zip Code: 05089 Windsor Windsor 40.2 Miles
Zip Code: 05401 Chittenden Burlington 40.21 Miles
Zip Code: 05828 Caledonia Danville 40.37 Miles
Zip Code: 05449 Chittenden Colchester 41 Miles
Zip Code: 05655 Lamoille Hyde Park 41.43 Miles
Zip Code: 05037 Windsor Brownsville 41.56 Miles
Zip Code: 05758 Rutland Mount Holly 41.84 Miles
Zip Code: 05656 Lamoille Johnson 41.96 Miles
Zip Code: 05494 Chittenden Westford 42.08 Miles
Zip Code: 05446 Chittenden Colchester 42.3 Miles
Zip Code: 05730 Rutland Belmont 42.3 Miles
Zip Code: 05439 Chittenden Colchester 42.31 Miles
Zip Code: 05842 Orleans Greensboro Bend 42.46 Miles
Zip Code: 05764 Rutland Poultney 42.55 Miles
Zip Code: 05742 Rutland East Wallingford 42.74 Miles
Zip Code: 05444 Chittenden Cambridge 43.03 Miles
Zip Code: 05741 Rutland East Poultney 43.22 Miles
Zip Code: 05464 Lamoille Jeffersonville 43.23 Miles
Zip Code: 05757 Rutland Middletown Springs 43.26 Miles
Zip Code: 05153 Windsor Proctorsville 43.41 Miles
Zip Code: 05665 Lamoille North Hyde Park 43.91 Miles
Zip Code: 05773 Rutland Wallingford 44.08 Miles
Zip Code: 05841 Orleans Greensboro 44.24 Miles
Zip Code: 05030 Windsor Ascutney 44.58 Miles
Zip Code: 05819 Caledonia Saint Johnsbury 44.64 Miles
Zip Code: 05827 Orleans Craftsbury Common 45.11 Miles
Zip Code: 05863 Caledonia Saint Johnsbury Center 45.15 Miles
Zip Code: 05848 Caledonia Lower Waterford 45.29 Miles
Zip Code: 05826 Orleans Craftsbury 45.39 Miles
Zip Code: 05151 Windsor Perkinsville 45.83 Miles
Zip Code: 05149 Windsor Ludlow 46.08 Miles
Zip Code: 05653 Lamoille Eden Mills 46.38 Miles
Zip Code: 05142 Windsor Cavendish 46.49 Miles
Zip Code: 05838 Caledonia East Saint Johnsbury 46.77 Miles
Zip Code: 05492 Lamoille Waterville 46.77 Miles
Zip Code: 05144 Windsor Chester Depot 47.42 Miles
Zip Code: 05849 Caledonia Lyndon 47.62 Miles
Zip Code: 05468 Chittenden Milton 47.79 Miles
Zip Code: 05851 Caledonia Lyndonville 47.86 Miles
Zip Code: 05454 Chittenden Fairfax 47.97 Miles
Zip Code: 05774 Rutland Wells 48.42 Miles
Zip Code: 05850 Caledonia Lyndon Center 48.51 Miles
Zip Code: 05652 Lamoille Eden 48.77 Miles
Zip Code: 05442 Lamoille Belvidere Center 49.07 Miles
Zip Code: 05739 Rutland Danby 49.38 Miles
Zip Code: 05150 Windsor North Springfield 49.58 Miles
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Communities in Vermont
Burlington is located in the northwestern corner of Vermont and is
the most populous city in the state. The economy of Burlington is
highly diverse, and the city boasts a very low unemployment rate. The
busiest sectors of the economy are utilities, transportation, trade,
health services, and education, while the city still has a reasonably
strong manufacturing presence. Companies headquartered in the city
include Lake Champlain Chocolates, Bruegger's, and Burton Snowboards.
The University of Vermont is located in Burlington, as well as
Burlington College and Champlain College.
Essex is the second largest community in the state of Vermont, but is
incorporated as a town, rather than a city. Essex was founded before
the founding of the United States, in 1763. Attractions in Essex,
Vermont include the Culinary Resort and Spa, hot air balloon rides,
and the Harriet Farnsworth Powell Museum.
South Burlington, Vermont is the third most populous community in the
state, and the second largest city. The city lies on the shore of
Lake Champlain. South Burlington's economy is driven primarily by
retail, and the most nationally known company in the city is the
Magic Hat Brewing Company.
Colchester, Vermont is the fourth most populous community in the
state, and its second most populous town. Like South Burlington, the
Colchester economy is based primarily in retail, although the area
does draw a significant number of tourists each year, who visit for
the beautiful nature and the lakefront activities the town provides.
Rutland is the fifth largest community in the state of Vermont, and
the third most populous city. The Rutland economy is primarily
retail, but the city also has a number of manufacturing operations,
including Carris Reels and General Electric. Rutland is an old city
with a well-preserved downtown, and attractions include The Spartan
Arena, Pine Hill Park, and the Paramount Theater.
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Vermont (i/vərˈmɒnt/ or /vɜrˈmɒnt/, locally: [vɚˈmɑ̟̃(ʔ)]) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Vermont is the 6th smallest in area and the 2nd least populous of the 50 United States. It is the only New England state not bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Champlain forms half of Vermont's western border, which it shares with the state of New York. The Green Mountains are within the state. Vermont is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east across the Connecticut River, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.
Originally inhabited by two major Native American tribes (the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and the Iroquois), much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France during its early colonial period. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War (in the United States, referred to as the French and Indian War). For many years, the nearby colonies, especially New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area (then called the New Hampshire Grants).
Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the republic lasted for fourteen years. Aside from the Thirteen Colonies, Vermont is one of only four U.S. states (along with Texas, Hawaii, and California) to have been a sovereign state in its past. In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the 14th state, the first in addition to the original 13 Colonies. Vermont was the first state to partially abolish slavery while still independent.
Vermont is the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. The state capital is Montpelier with a population of 7,855, making it the least populous state capital in the country. Vermont's most populous city is Burlington, with a 2013 population of 42,284, which makes it the least populous city in the United States to be the largest city within a state. Burlington's metropolitan area has a population of 214,796. Vermont is one of the most racially homogeneous states; 94.3% of its population identified as white in 2010.
Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles (24,900 km2), making it the 45th-largest state. It is the only state that does not have any buildings taller than 124 feet (38 m). Land comprises 9,250 square miles (24,000 km2) and water comprises 365 square miles (950 km2), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern (New Hampshire) border of the state (the river is part of New Hampshire). 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed.
Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (256 km) long. Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143 km) at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is 37 miles (60 km) at the Massachusetts line. The width averages 60.5 miles (97.4 km). The state's geographic center is approximately three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen US federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada.
The origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but likely comes from the French les Verts Monts, meaning "the Green Mountains". Thomas Young introduced it in 1777. Some authorities[specify] say that the mountains were called green because they were more forested than the higher White Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say that the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the reason. The Green Mountain range forms a north–south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen.
Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak. About 77% of the state is covered by forest; the rest is covered in meadow, uplands, lakes, ponds, and marshes.
Areas in Vermont administered by the National Park Service include the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (in Woodstock) and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail.
Vermont has nine incorporated cities, listed by population.
Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such.
The annual mean temperature for the state is 43 °F (6 °C). Vermont has a humid continental climate, with muddy springs, in general a mild early summer, hot Augusts; it has colorful autumns: Vermont's hills reveal red, orange, and (on sugar maples) gold foliage as cold weather approaches. Winters are colder at higher elevations. It has a Köppen climate classification of Dfb, similar to Minsk, Stockholm, and Fargo.
The rural northeastern section (dubbed the "Northeast Kingdom") often averages 10 °F (5.6 °C) colder than the southern areas of the state during winter. The annual snowfall averages between 60 and 100 inches (1,500 and 2,500 mm) depending on elevation.
Vermont is the seventh coldest state in the country. In winter, until typical El Niño conditions, Vermont's winters are "too cold to snow"; the air is too cold to contain sufficient moisture to prompt precipitation.
The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at Vernon, on July 4, 1911; the lowest recorded temperature was −50 °F (−46 °C), at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933; this is the lowest temperature recorded in New England (Big Black River, Maine, also recorded a verified −50 °F (−46 °C) in 2009). The agricultural growing season ranges from 120 to 180 days.
The USDA Plant hardiness zones for the state range between zone 3b (no colder than −35 °F (−37 °C)) in the Northeast Kingdom and northern part of the state and zone 5b (no colder than −15 °F (−26 °C)) in the southern part of the state.
The state receives between 2,000 and 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.
There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Categorized by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, and the Vermont Piedmont.
About 500 million years ago, Vermont was part of Laurentia and located in the tropics.
The central and southern Green Mountain range include the oldest rocks in Vermont, formed about one billion years ago during the first mountain building period (or orogeny). Subsequently, about 400 million years ago, the second mountain building period created Green Mountain peaks that were 15,000–20,000 feet (4,600–6,100 m) tall, three to four times their current height and comparable to the Himalayas. The geological pressures that created those peaks remain evident as the Champlain Thrust, running north–south to the west of the mountains (now the eastern shore of Lake Champlain). It is an example of geological fault thrusting where bedrock is pushed over the newer rock formation.
As a result of tectonic formation, Vermont east of the Green Mountains tends to be formed from rocks produced in the Silurian and Devonian periods. Western Vermont mainly from the older Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian material.
Several large deposits within the state contain granite.
Some buildings in Germany, Hong Kong and Abu Dhabi are constructed almost primarily[clarification needed] of Vermont granite. Rock of Ages quarries two kinds of granite in Vermont: Barre Gray and Bethel White.
The remains of the Chazy Formation can be observed in Isle La Motte. It was one of the first tropical reefs. It is the site of the limestone Fisk Quarry, which contains a collection of ancient marine fossils such as stromatoporoids that date back to 200 million years ago. It is believed that at one point, Vermont was connected to Africa (Pangaea) and the fossils found and the rock formations found on the coasts in both Africa and America are further evidence of the Pangaea theory.
In the past four centuries, Vermont has experienced a few earthquakes rarely centered under Vermont, the highest being a Richter magnitude scale 6.0 in 1952.
The state contains 41 species of reptiles and amphibians, 89 species of fish, of which 12 are non-native; 193 species of breeding birds, 58 species of mammals, more than 15,000 insect species, and 2,000 higher plant species, plus fungi, algae, and 75 different types of natural communities.
Vermont contains one species of venomous snake, the eastern timber rattlesnake, which is confined to a few acres in western Rutland County.
By the mid-19th century, wild turkeys were exterminated in the state through overhunting and destruction of habitat. Sixteen were re-introduced in 1969 and had grown to an estimated flock of 45,000 in 2009. in 2013, hunters killed 6,968 of these.
Since 1970, reduction of farmland has resulted in reduced environment for, and reduced numbers of various shrubland birds including the American woodcock, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, willow flycatcher, golden-winged warbler, blue-winged warbler, field sparrow, and Baltimore oriole.
DDT destroyed the eggshells of ospreys, which resulted in their disappearance from the state. This species began reviving in 1998. As of 2010, they were no longer endangered in the state.
White-nose syndrome killed an estimated two-thirds of all cave-wintering bats in the state from 2008 to 2010.
The New England cottontail disappeared from the state in the early 1970s, out-competed by the eastern cottontail rabbit, imported in the 1800s for hunting, and which is better able to detect predators.
Out of a total of 33 species of bumblebee, there were 19 or 20 in the state in 2013. Bombus terricola (the yellow-banded bumblebee), although once common in Vermont, has not been seen in most of its range since 1999 and is now absent from Vermont. For honey bees, colony collapse disorder has affected bee population in the state, as elsewhere.
Invasive species included the Asian spotted-wing drosophila, which started damaging berry crops in 2012. Vermont was the initial point of invasion in New England.
Since 2010, the Vermont Department of Health has worked with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct blood serum surveys of the state's deer and moose populations. Tests for eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies were positive in moose or deer in each of Vermont's counties. In 2012, 12% of deer and 2.4% of moose tested positive.
Vermont is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. Much of the state, in particular the Green Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests. The western border with New York and the area around Lake Champlain lies within the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests. The southwest corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River are covered by Northeastern coastal forests of mixed oak.
Invasive wild honeysuckle has been deemed a threat to the state's forests, native species of plants, and wildlife.
Many of Vermont's rivers, including the Winooski River, have been subjected to man-made barriers to prevent flooding.
Climate change appears to be affecting the maple sugar industry. Sugar maples have been subject to stress by acid rain, asian longhorn beetles, pear thrips, and, in 2011, an excessive deer herd that is forced to eat bark in the winter. These maples need a certain amount of cold to produce sap for maple syrup. The time to tap these trees has shrunk to one week in some years. The tree may be replaced by the more aggressive Norway maples, in effect forcing the sugar maples to "migrate" north to Canada.
Between 8500 and 7000 BCE, at the time of the Champlain Sea, Native Americans inhabited and hunted in present-day Vermont. During the Archaic period, from the 8th millennium BCE to 1000 BCE, Native Americans migrated year-round. During the Woodland period, from 1000 BCE to 1600 CE, villages and trade networks were established, and ceramic and bow and arrow technology was developed. In the western part of the state there lived a small population of Algonquian-speaking tribes, including the Mohican and Abenaki peoples. Sometime between 1500 and 1600 CE, the Iroquois, based in present-day New York, drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting ground and warring with the remaining Abenaki. The population in 1500 CE was estimated to be around 10,000 people.
The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been Jacques Cartier in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain claimed Vermont as part of New France. In 1666, French settlers erected Fort Lamotte, the first European settlement in Vermont.
In 1638, a "violent" earthquake was felt throughout New England, centered in the St. Lawrence Valley. This was the first seismic event noted in Vermont.
In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point 8 miles (13 km) west of present-day Addison.
During Dummer's War, the first permanent British settlement was established in 1724, with the construction of Fort Dummer. It was to protect the nearby settlements of Dummerston and Brattleboro.
From 1731 to 1734, the French constructed Fort St. Frédéric, which gave the French control of the New France/Vermont frontier region in the Lake Champlain Valley. With the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754, the North American front of the Seven Years' War between the French and English, the French began construction of Fort Carillon at present-day Ticonderoga, New York in 1755. The British failed to take Fort St. Frédéric or Fort Carillon between 1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffery Amherst captured Carillon, after which the French abandoned Fort St. Frédéric. Amherst constructed Fort Crown Point next to the remains of the Fort St. Frédéric, securing British control over the area.
Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, through the 1763 Treaty of Paris they ceded control of the land to the British. Colonial settlement was limited by the Crown to lands east of the Appalachians, in order to try to end encroachment on Native American lands. The territory of Vermont was divided nearly in half in a jagged line running from Fort William Henry in Lake George diagonally north-eastward to Lake Memphremagog. With the end of the war, new settlers arrived in Vermont. Ultimately, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all claimed this frontier area.
On March 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45 degrees north latitude. In 1770, Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and Seth Warner, recruited an informal militia known as the Green Mountain Boys to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against newcomers from New York.
When New York refused to recognize the land titles known as the New Hampshire Grants (towns created by land grants sold by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth), dissatisfied New Hampshire settlers organized in opposition. This led to their proclaiming an independent Vermont on January 15, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War.
On January 15, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants declared the independence of Vermont. For the first six months of its existence, it was called The Republic of New Connecticut.
On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met to adopt the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly Pennsylvanian, Dr. Thomas Young, friend and mentor of Ethan Allen, who wrote to them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent United States of America as the 14th state. On July 4, the Constitution of Vermont was drafted at the Windsor Tavern; it was adopted by the delegates on July 8. This was among the first written constitutions in North America to partially ban slavery, provide for universal adult male suffrage, and require support of public schools. It was in effect from 1777 to 1791. Slavery was fully banned by state law on November 25, 1858, less than three years before the American Civil War.
The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the state of Vermont and the United States. A combined American force, under General John Stark's command, attacked the British column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from Bennington. It killed or captured virtually the entire British detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga, New York, on October 17 that year.
The battles of Bennington and Saratoga together are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a British army. The anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday.
The Battle of Hubbardton (July 7, 1777) was the only Revolutionary battle in present day Vermont. Although the Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces were damaged to the point that they did not pursue the Americans (retreating from Fort Ticonderoga) any further.
Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern town of Windsor for 14 years. The independent state of Vermont issued its own coinage from 1785 to 1788 and operated a statewide postal service. Thomas Chittenden was the Governor in 1778–89 and in 1790–91. The state was obliged to solve conflicting property ownership disputes with New Yorkers. Vermont petitioned Congress to become a state in the federal union. Congress acted on February 18, 1791 to admit Vermont to the Union as the 14th state as of March 4, 1791,s and become the first to enter the Union after the original 13 colonies. Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836.
From the mid-1850s on, Vermonters became activists opposing slavery, which they had previously worked to contain in the South. Abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens developed as a national leader and later promoted Radical Republican goals after the American Civil War. While the Whig Party shriveled, and the Republican Party emerged, Vermont supported Republican candidates. In 1860 it voted for Abraham Lincoln for US President, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state.
During the American Civil War, Vermont sent more than 34,000 men into United States service. Almost 5,200 Vermonters, 15 percent, were killed or mortally wounded in action or died of disease, a higher percentage than any other state.
The northernmost land action of the war, the St. Albans Raid, took place in Vermont.
Beginning in the mid-19th century, Vermont attracted numerous Irish, Scots-Irish and Italian immigrants, adding to its residents of mostly English and French-Canadian ancestry. Many migrated to Barre, where the men worked as stonecutters of granite, for which there was a national market. Vermont granite was used in major public buildings in many states. Many Italian and Scottish women operated boarding houses in the late 19th century to support their families. Such facilities helped absorb new residents, who peaked between 1890 and 1900. Typically immigrants boarded with people of their own language and ethnicity, but sometimes they boarded with others.
The state has suffered some natural disasters in the 20th and 21st centuries related to hurricanes, extensive rain and flooding. Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 84 people died, including the state's lieutenant-governor.
The 1938 New England hurricane in the fall of that year blew down 15,000,000 acres (61,000 km2) of trees, one-third of the total forest at the time in New England. Three billion board feet were salvaged. Today many of the older trees in Vermont are about 75 years old, dating from after this storm.
Another flood occurred in 1973, causing the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage.
The state suffered severe flooding in late August 2011 caused by Tropical Storm Irene. Heavy rains caused flooding in many towns built in narrow river valleys. The governor described it as one of the worst natural disasters of the 20th and 21st centuries, second only to the flood of 1927.
Vermont approved women's suffrage decades before it became part of the national constitution. Women were first allowed to vote in the elections of December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage. They were first allowed to vote in town elections, and later in state legislative races.
In 1964, the US Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims required "one-man, one-vote" redistricting in all states; this resulted in major changes in Vermont. This ruling required city residents to be given an equitable share of apportionment in both houses in every state. Vermont had long been dominated by rural districts, as were several Southern states in those years. Until that time, apportionment was based on county jurisdictions, which had given more power to rural counties and decreased representation of urban residents. This arrangement had meant that urban issues were not considered in proportion to the number of people affected by them.
In July 2000 Vermont was the first state to introduce civil unions. In 2009 the Vermont became the first state to legislate same-sex marriage, unforced by court challenge or ruling.
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Vermont was 626,562 on July 1, 2014, a 0.13% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington County, in the town of Warren.
According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2014, Vermont has an estimated population of 626,562, which is an increase of 821, or 0.13% percent, from the prior year and an increase of 821, or 0.13% percent, since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 7,148 people (33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state. In 2006 it had the second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women.
Net migration from outside the United States resulted in an increase of 4,359 people, and net migration from within the country produced an increase of 3,530 people. As of 2009, 47.8% of Vermont's population was born outside the state, with first and second-generation Vermonters representing a majority of the population. The changing demographics between those with multi-generational ties to the state and those who are newcomers, bringing different values with them, has resulted in a degree of tension between the two perspectives. This tension is expressed in the terms, "Woodchuck", being applied to those established in the state, and "Flatlander", applied to the newcomers. Vermont is the least populous New England state. As of 2012, Vermont is one of only two states in the U.S. that has fewer people than the District of Columbia (the other state is Wyoming).
From 2010 to 2013, 16 out of Vermont's 251 towns experienced an increase in population. All towns in Chittenden increased with the exception of Burlington. More than 180 towns experienced a decrease which hasn't happened since the mid-19th century.
In 2009, 12.6 percent of people over 15 were divorced. This was the fifth highest percentage in the nation. As of 2008, the median age of Vermonters was 40.6 and that of the work force was 43.7, compared with the national average of 41.1 years.
Vermont's population is:
Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, Vermont ranks:
The above percentages are from the 2010 Census.
The largest ancestry groups are:
Residents of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout most of Vermont. The northern part of the state maintains a significant percentage of people of French-Canadian ancestry. Some vestiges of a Vermont accent are heard but the population has become more homogenized around General American in recent years.
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 2.54 percent of the population aged five and older speak French at home, while 1 percent speak Spanish.
According to 2012 and 2014 Gallup polls, Vermont ranked the least religious state in the U.S., with 23% of the residents considering themselves "very religious". In 2008, just over half of Vermont residents identified themselves as Christians. The largest single religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church. According to the ARDA in 2010, the Catholic Church had 128,293 members.
Almost one-third of Vermonters were self-identified Protestants. The Congregational United Church of Christ is the largest Protestant denomination with 16,392 members. Vermont has the largest percentage of this denomination of any state. The number of congregations of the United Church of Christ (135) was larger than the number of Catholic congregations (129).
The second-largest Protestant denomination is the United Methodist Church with 14,710 members; followed by the Baptists with 7,178 members.
Twenty-four percent of Vermonters attended church regularly. This low is matched nationally only by New Hampshire.
In 2008, 34 percent of Vermonters claimed no religion; this is the highest percentage in the nation. A survey suggested that people in Vermont and New Hampshire, which were polled jointly, were less likely to attend weekly services and are less likely to believe in God (54 percent) than people in the rest of the nation (71 percent). The two states were at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. About 23 percent of the respondents attended religious service at least once a week (39 percent nationally). Thirty-six percent said religion is very important to them (56 percent nationally).
Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young—the first two leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—were both born in Vermont. A memorial to Joseph Smith, at his birthplace in Sharon, is maintained by the LDS church and draws about 70,000 visitors annually. As of 2010[update], the church reports 4,386 members in twelve congregations throughout the state.
Vermont may have the highest concentration of western-convert Buddhists in the country. Several Buddhist retreat centers are located in the state.
2,000 people of the Islamic faith are estimated to live in the state.
In 2007, Vermont was ranked by Forbes magazine as 32nd best among states in which to do business. It was 30th the previous year. In 2008, an economist said that the state had "a really stagnant economy, which is what we are forecasting for Vermont for the next 30 years." In May 2010, Vermont's 6.2 percent unemployment rate was the fourth lowest in the nation. This rate reflects the second sharpest decline among the 50 states since the prior May.
According to the 2010 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Vermont's gross state product (GSP) was $26 billion. Not accounting for size, this places the state 50th among the 50 states. It stood 34th in per capita GSP.
Components of GSP were:
Canada was Vermont's largest foreign trade partner in 2007. The state's second-largest foreign trade partner was Taiwan. The state had $4 billion worth of commerce with Québec.
One measure of economic activity is retail sales. The state had $5.2 billion in 2007. In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in Vermont, a decline of 500 from 2007.
The median household income from 2002 to 2004 was $45,692. This was 15th nationally. The median wage in the state in 2008 was $15.31 hourly or $31,845 annually. In 2007 about 80 percent of the 68,000 Vermonters who qualify for food stamps received them. 40 percent of seniors 75 years or older live on annual incomes of $21,660 or less. In 2011, 15.2% of Vermonters received food stamps. This compares to 14.8% nationally.
In 2011, 91,000 seniors received an annual average of $14,000 from Social Security. This comprised 59% of the average senior's income. This contributed $1.7 billion to the state's economy.
Agriculture contributed 2.2% of the state's domestic product in 2000. In 2000, about 3 percent of the state's working population engaged in agriculture.
Over the past two centuries, logging has fallen off as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less attractive. The decline of farms has resulted in a regrowth of Vermont's forests due to ecological succession. Today, most of Vermont's forests are secondary. The state and non-profit organizations are actively encouraging regrowth and careful forest management. Over 78 percent of the land area of the state is forested. Over 85 percent of that area is non-industrial, private forestland owned by individuals or families. In 2011 914,000 cord (117,000,000 cu ft of wood) were harvested in Vermont. Most of it was processed within the state. In this century the manufacture of wood products has fallen by almost half since 2005. The state estimates that 80,000,000 cord (1.0×1010 cu ft of wood) remain in the state.
Dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income. In the last half of the 20th century, developers had plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's government responded with a series of laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry. Still, the number of Vermont dairy farms has declined more than 85 percent from the 11,206 dairy farms operating in 1947. In 2003 there were fewer than 1,500 dairy farms in the state; in 2006 there were 1,138; and in 2007 there were 1,087. The number of dairy farms has been diminishing by 10 percent annually.
The number of cattle in Vermont had declined by 40 percent; however, milk production has doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow. While milk production rose, Vermont's market share declined. Within a group of states supplying the Boston and New York City markets, Vermont was third in market share, with 10.6 percent; New York has 44.9 percent and Pennsylvania has 32.9 percent. In 2007, dairy farmers received a record $23.60 for 100 pounds (45 kg) of milk. This dropped in 2008 to $17. The average dairy farm produced 1.3 million pounds of milk annually in 2008.
The dairy barn remains an iconic image of Vermont, but the 87 percent decrease in active dairy farms between 1947 and 2003 means that preservation of the dairy barns has increasingly become dependent upon a commitment to maintaining a legacy rather than basic need in the agricultural economy. The Vermont Barn Census, organized by a collaboration of educational and nonprofit state and local historic preservation programs, has developed educational and administrative systems for recording the number, condition, and features of barns throughout Vermont.
In 2009, there were 543 organic farms. Twenty percent of the dairy farms were organic and 23 percent (128) vegetable farms were organic. Organic farming increased in 2006–07, but leveled off in 2008–09. Nor are any expected for 2010.
A significant amount of milk is shipped into the Boston market. Therefore the Commonwealth of Massachusetts certifies that Vermont farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the bulk market.
An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand," which the state manages and defends. Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream.
There were about 2,000 maple products producers in 2010. In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about one-quarter of U.S. production. For 2005 that number was 410,000 US gallons (1,600,000 l; 340,000 imp gal) accounting for 37 percent of national production. This rose to 920,000 US gallons (3,500,000 l; 770,000 imp gal) in 2009. The state's share of the nation's production rose to 42% in 2013. It had the second lowest price at $33.40/gallon.
Wine industry in Vermont started in 1985. As of 2007, there were 14 wineries.
Farms in the state were estimated to have hired 2,000 illegal immigrants as of 2005, largely tolerated by local police and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Vermont's largest for-profit employer, IBM, in Essex Junction, provides 25 percent of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont, employing 5,000 workers in 2013. It is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy.
A 2010 University of Connecticut study reported that Vermont, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire tied as the most costly states in the U.S. for manufacturers.
An increasingly aging population is expected to improve the position of aging services and health care in the state economy. In 2013, Fletcher Allen Health Care, with 7,100 employees, was the second-largest employer of people in the state and the largest private employer.
In 2010, all of Vermont's hospitals billed patients $3.76 billion, and collected $2 billion. 92,000 people are enrolled in Medicare. In 2011, Medicare spent $740 million on health care in the state.
In 2007 Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4 percent of Vermont's 18.4 percent of household income to a mortgage.
Housing prices did not rise much during the early 2000s. As a result, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either. While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood 50th—the most favorable—in ratio of foreclosure filings to households. While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to 2008, prices continued to rise.
In 2007, Vermont was best in the country for construction of new energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Energy Star program. However, about 60 percent of Vermont homes were heated with oil in 2008. In August 2008, the cost in Vermont of various heating sources per 1 million BTU ranged from $14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene.
While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318 in 2004 to 8,120 in 2005, 6,919 in 2006, and 5,820 in 2007, the average price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in 2007).
In 2009, the average rent for a two-bedroom apartment was $920 per month. Rental vacancy was 5.4 percent, the lowest in the nation. 2,800 people were counted as homeless in January 2010, 22 percent more than in 2008.
In 2011, Vermont was fifth among the states with the greatest backlog of foreclosures needing court processing, taking an estimated 18 years. The national average was eight years.
As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11 percent of these are unionized. Out of a workforce of 299,200 workers, 52,000 were government jobs, federal, state and local. 
A modern high unemployment rate of 9 percent was reached in June 1976. A modern low of 2.4 percent was measured in February 2000. As of September 2010, the unemployment rate was 5.8 percent.
Employment grew 7.5 percent from 2000 to 2006. From 1980 to 2000, employment grew by 3.4 percent; nationally it was up 4.6 percent. Real wages were $33,385 in 2006 constant dollars and remained there in 2010; the nation, $36,871.
Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2009 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. In 2009, there were 560 such companies. In 2010, the state had 900 such companies.
Tourism is an important industry to the state. Some of the largest ski areas in New England are located in Vermont. Skiers and snowboarders visit Burke Mountain Ski Area, Bolton Valley, Smugglers' Notch, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Stowe Mountain Resort, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount Snow, Bromley, and Magic Mountain Ski Area. Summer visitors tour resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, Quechee, Wilmington and Woodstock. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round. Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy.
Visitors participate in trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing. Some hike the Long Trail.
In winter, Nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail. Several horse shows are annual events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.
According to the 2000 Census, almost 15 percent of all housing units in Vermont were vacant and classified "for seasonal, recreational, or occasional use".[clarification needed] This was the second highest percentage nationwide, after Maine. In some Vermont cities, vacation homes owned by wealthy residents of New England and New York City constitute the bulk of all housing stock. According to one estimate, as of 2009, 84 percent of all houses in Ludlow, Vermont, were owned by out-of-state residents. Other notable vacation-home resorts include Manchester and Stowe.
In 2005, visitors made an estimated 13.4 million trips to the state, spending $1.57 billion. In 2012, fall accounted for $460 million of income, about one-quarter of all tourism.
In 2011, the state government earned $274 million in taxes and fees from tourism. 89% of the money came from out-of-state visitors. Tourism supported over 26,000 jobs, 7.2% of total employment.
In 2000–01, there were 4,579,719 skier and snowboarder visits to the state. There were 4,125,082 visits in 2009–2010, a rise from recent years.
In 2008, there were 35,000 members of 138 snowmobiling clubs in Vermont. The combined association of clubs maintains 6,000 miles (9,700 km) of trail often over private lands. The industry is said to generate "hundreds of millions of dollars worth of business."
Hunting is controlled for black bear, wild turkeys, deer, and moose. There are 5,500 bears in the state. The goal is to keep the numbers between 4,500 and 6,000. In 2010, there were about 141,000 deer in the state, which is in range of government goals. However, these are distributed unevenly and when in excess of 10-15 per square mile, negatively impact timber growth.
In 2012, hunting of migratory birds was limited to October 13 to December 16. Waterfowl hunting is also controlled by federal law.
The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset. The granite industry attracted numerous skilled stonecutters in the late 19th century from Italy, Scotland, and Ireland. Barre is the location of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest dimension stone granite quarry in the United States. Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country. The highest quarrying revenues result from the production of dimension stone. The Rock of Ages Quarry in Barre is one of the leading exporters of granite in the country. The work of the sculptors of this corporation can be seen 3 miles (4.8 km) down the road at the Hope Cemetery, where there are gravestones and mausoleums.
There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in Vermont in 2008, with $2.8 billion in revenue. The state ranked ninth in the country for volunteerism for the period 2005–08. 35.6% of the population volunteered during this period. The national average was 26.4%.
Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. 5.7 percent of Vermont households did not own a car in 2008. In 2012, there were 605,000 motor vehicles registered, nearly one car for every person in the state. This is similar to average car ownership nationwide. In 2012, about half the carbon emissions in the state resulted from vehicles.
On average, 20–25 people die each year from drunk driving incidents; as well as 70–80 people in fatal car crashes in the state. Motorists have the highest rate of insurance in the country, 93%, tied with Pennsylvania.
In 2010 Vermont owned 2,840 miles (4,570 km) of highway. This was the third smallest quantity among the 50 states. 2.5 percent of the highways were listed as "congested," the 5th lowest in the country. The highway fatality rate was 1 per 100,000,000 miles (160,000,000 km), tenth lowest in the nation. The highways cost $28,669 per 1 mile (1.6 km) to maintain, the 17th highest in the states. 34.4 percent of its bridges were rated deficient or obsolete, the 8th worst in the nation.
Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont, the Vermonter and the Ethan Allen Express. In 2011, Amtrak evaluated the track used by the Ethan Allen Express between Rutland and Whitehall, as the worst in the nation.
Trucks weighing less than 80,000 pounds (36,000 kg) can use Vermont's interstate highways. The limit for state roads is 99,000 pounds (45,000 kg). This means that vehicles too heavy for the turnpikes can legally only use secondary roads.
In 1968 Vermont outlawed the use of billboards for advertisement along its roads. It is one of four states in the US to have done this, along with Hawaii, Maine, and Alaska.
The state has 2,843 miles (4,575 km) of highways under its control.
For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont.
A 2005–06 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of thirteen places since 2004–05.
Federal data indicates that 16 percent of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006. In 2007 Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in the country.
The state is served by Amtrak's Vermonter and Ethan Allen Express, the New England Central Railroad, the Vermont Railway, and the Green Mountain Railroad.
The Ethan Allen Express serves Rutland and Castleton, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls and Brattleboro.
Greyhound Lines stops at Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, and White River Junction. Megabus, as of November 2014, stops in Burlington and Montpelier also. Vermont Translines, an intercity bus company started by Premier Coach in 2013 partnering with Greyhound and starting service on June 9, 2014, serves Milton, Colchester, Burlington, Middlebury, Brandon, Rutland, Wallingford, Manchester and Bennington on its Burlington to Albany line, and Rutland, Killington, Bridgewater, Woodstock, Queechee and White River Junction along the US Route 4 corridor.
Other transportation includes:
Vermont is served by two commercial airports:
Vermont statute requires the Vermont secretary of state to designate newspapers that provide general coverage across the state as the "Newspapers of Record." On June 30, 2010, the secretary of state designated the following newspapers for publishing administrative rule notices during the period of July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011:
Vermont hosts 93 radio broadcast stations. The top categories are Talk/Information (11), Country (9), and Classic Rock (9). The top two owners of radio broadcast stations were Vermont Public Radio (11 broadcast frequencies + 13 low-power, local translators) and Nassau Broadcasting III, LLC (6 broadcast frequencies + 6 translators based in Lebanon, NH). Other companies had five or fewer stations. The state has fifteen on-line radio stations.
Vermont hosts 10 high-power television broadcast stations, three of which are satellites of a primary station. Represented are the following networks and number of high-power transmitters, ABC (1), CBS (1), Fox (1), NBC (2), PBS (4), and RTV (1). In addition, it has 17 low-power television broadcast stations, which in several cases are satellites of the high-power stations.
2008 peak demand in the state was 1,100 megawatts (MW).
In May 2009, Vermont created the first state-wide renewable energy feed-in law. In 2010, there were about 150 methane digesters in the nation, Vermont led the nation with six online.
While Vermont paid the lowest rates in New England for power in 2007, it is still ranked among the highest eleven states in the nation; that is, about 16 percent higher than the national average.
In 2009, the state had the highest energy rates for energy (including heating) in the U.S. and the worst affordability gap nationwide.
In 2009, the state received one-third (400 MW) of its power from Hydro-Québec and one-third from Vermont Yankee. In total, the state got half its power from Canada and other states. It received 75 percent of the power it generated in the state from Vermont Yankee. The state is part of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council for the distribution of electricity.
The state's two largest electric utilities, Green Mountain Power Corporation and Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, together serve 80 percent of Vermont households.
Vermont experts estimate that the state has the capacity to ultimately generate from 134 to 175 megawatts of electricity from hydro power.
In 2006, the total summer generating capacity of Vermont was 1,117 megawatts. In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average of 5,883 kilowatt-hours (21,180 MJ) of electricity per capita. Another source says that each household consumed 7,100 kilowatt-hours (26,000 MJ) annually in 2008.
Vermont has the highest rate of nuclear-generated power in the nation, 73.7 percent. Vermont is one of two states with no coal-fired power plant.
All Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New England. Each utility pays a share of transmitting power over these lines. Vermont's share is about 4.5 percent.
The state has 78 hydropower dams. They generate 143 MW, about 12 percent of the state's total requirement.
A 2013 survey found that of 18,790 miles (30,240 km) of roads surveyed, all but 3,118 mi had cellular coverage by at least one carrier. The roads surveyed are concentrated in the more heavily populated areas.
A June 2013 survey found that of nearly 249,976 addresses surveyed, 84.7% had fixed (as opposed to mobile) broadband available. It was projected that all but 29 addresses would have fixed broadband available by the end of 2013.
Vermont is federally represented in the United States Congress by two senators and one representative.
The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the Vermont General Assembly, the Governor of Vermont and the Vermont Supreme Court. The governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms including the governor and 30 senators. There are no term limits for any office. The state capital is in Montpelier.
There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont: towns, cities, and villages. Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as state courts, with several elected officers such as a state's Attorney and sheriff. All county services are directly funded by the state of Vermont. The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.
Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement, yet Vermont has had a balanced budget every year since 1991. In 2007, Moody's gave its top bond credit rating (Aaa) to the state.
The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to private business enterprises. The Vermont Lottery Commission, the Liquor Control Fund, and the Unemployment Compensation Trust Fund, are the largest of the State's enterprise funds.
In 2007, Vermont was the 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average was $3,447. However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1 percent of the per capita income of $38,306.
Vermont collects a state personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, with marginal tax rates ranging from 3.6 percent to 9.5 percent. In 2008, the top 1 percent of Vermont residents provided 30 percent of the income tax revenue; around 2,000 people had sufficient income to be taxed at the highest marginal rate of 9.5 percent.
Vermont's general state sales tax rate is 6 percent, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts. Some towns and cities impose an additional 1 percent Local Option Tax. There are 46 exemptions from the sales tax, including exemptions for food, medical items, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays the use tax when the seller fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax.
Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes, but does impose a state estate tax; a Vermont estate tax return must be filed if the estate must file a federal estate tax return (the requirement for which depends on federal law).
Vermont does not collect a state gift tax.
Property taxes are levied by municipalities for the support of education and municipal services. Vermont does not assess tax on personal property. Property taxes are based on appraisal of the fair market value of real property. Rates vary from .97 percent on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72 percent on nonresidents' property in Barre City. Statewide, towns average 1.77 percent to 1.82 percent tax rate. In 2007, Vermont counties were among the highest in the country for property taxes. Chittenden ($3,809 median), Windham ($3,412), Addison ($3,352), and Windsor ($3,327) ranked in the top 100, out of 1,817 counties in the nation with populations greater than 20,000. Twelve of the state's 14 counties stood in the top 20 percent. Median annual property taxes as a percentage of median homeowners income, 5.4%, was rated as the third highest in the nation in 2011.
To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support.
Vermonters have been known for their political independence. Vermont is one of four states (aside from the original Thirteen Colonies) that were once independent nations (the others being Texas, California, and Hawaii). It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party, and Vermont was one of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his presidential campaigns (the other was Maine).
Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession.
Republicans dominated local Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.
Vermont was for many years a stronghold of the Republican Party. Ethno-political culture of the last century has seen a dramatic shift in voter turnout in the Green Mountain State. Americans of French descent overwhelmingly vote Democratic, and are the largest ethnicity in Vermont. Vermonters of English descent, (sometimes known as the "Yankee" Vermonters) overwhelmingly vote Republican. Americans of English descent make up between a fifth and a quarter of the state and Americans of French descent make roughly one third of the state. All other ethnicities in the state breakdown roughly 50-50 along political lines, however the predominance of French-Canadian descended Vermonters who vote Democrat the overwhelming majority of the time has led to a dwindling of the "Yankee Republicanism" for which Vermont was once synonymous. The Irish Catholic vote has fluctuated during this time, while the French-Canadian vote has remained solidly Democrat and the vote of the "Yankee" Vermonters of English descent has remained solidly Republican. Since 1992 Vermont has voted for the Democrat in every Presidential election. Prior to 1992 Vermont has voted for the Republican in every single Presidential election with the exception of 1964.
A series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States Supreme Court in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative districts to more fairly reflect population. As a result, urban areas in Vermont gained political power.
After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the 1960s, it passed legislation to accommodate[clarification needed] the new arrivals to the state. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities. As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are now five Wal-Marts in the state, as of December 2013, but only two - in Williston and St. Albans - were newly built from the ground up). Because of the successful attempts to dilute what is perceived as the original intent of Act 250, and other development pressures, Vermont has been designated one of America's most "endangered historic places" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
In 1995, the state banned the spreading of manure from December 15 to April 1, to prevent runoff and protect the water. Therefore farms must have environmentally approved facilities to store manure during this time frame.
While the state voted largely Democratic, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election.
A controversy dating from 1999 has been over the adoption of civil unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage at the state, but not federal, level. In Baker v. Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean. In April 2009 the state legislature overrode governor Jim Douglas's veto to allow same-sex marriage, becoming the first state in the nation to legalize same-sex marriage through legislation. In September 2009, Vermont became the fourth state in which same-sex couples could marry.
In 2007, the state's House of Representatives rejected a measure which would have legalized assisted suicide for the terminally ill, by a vote of 82–63. Then with the governor's signature on May 20, 2013, Vermont became the fourth state to pass a "death with dignity" law—the first to be passed through legislation rather than by ballot initiative.
Minor parties and Independents flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections. This has resulted in the election to Mayor of Burlington and then to U.S. Congressman of Bernie Sanders, then a Socialist, and later, as an Independent, to U.S. Senator.
A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.
The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. That is, trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically assumed.
The state is an alcoholic beverage control state. In 2007, through the Vermont Department of Liquor Control, it took in over $14 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.
In 2013, Vermont became the 17th state to decriminalize marijuana. The statute makes possession of less than an ounce of the drug punishable by a small fine rather than arrest and possible jail time.
In 2014, Vermont became the first state to call for a constitutional convention to overturn the Supreme Court's Citizens United decision.
In 2014 Vermont became the first state to mandate labeling of genetically modified organisms in the retail food supply.
Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably Republican states in the country in terms of national elections. From 1856 to 1988, Vermont voted Democratic only once, in Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide victory of 1964 against Barry M. Goldwater. It was also one of only two states—the other being Maine—where Franklin D. Roosevelt was completely shut out in all four of his presidential bids. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Republican presidential candidates frequently won the state with over 70 percent of the vote.
In the 1980s and 1990s, many people moved in from out of state. Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and the rest of New England in Vermont. The brand of Republicanism in Vermont has historically been a moderate one, and combined with the newcomers from out of state, this made Vermont friendlier to Democrats as the national GOP moved to the right. As evidence of this, in 1990 Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, was elected to Vermont's lone seat in the House as an independent. Sanders became the state's junior Senator in 2007, and is presently one of only two members of that body who does not identify with a political party. However, for his entire career in the House and Senate, Sanders has caucused with the Democrats and is counted as a Democrat for the purposes of committee assignments and voting for party leadership.
After narrowly supporting George H. W. Bush in 1988, it gave Democrat Bill Clinton a 16-point margin in 1992—the first time the state had gone Democratic since 1964. Vermont has voted Democratic in every presidential election since.
Since 2004, Vermont has been one of the Democrats' most loyal states. It gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in the presidential campaign against George W. Bush; he won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points, taking almost 59 percent of the vote. (Kerry, from neighboring Massachusetts, also became the first Northern Democrat ever to carry Vermont; Johnson was from Texas, Clinton from Arkansas and Al Gore, triumphant in the Green Mountain State in 2000, from Tennessee.) Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush. Vermont is the only state that did not receive a visit from George W. Bush during his tenure as President of the United States. Indeed, George W. Bush is the only Republican to win the White House without carrying Vermont; he lost it in 2000 as well. In 2008, Vermont gave Barack Obama his third-largest margin of victory (37 percentage points) and third-largest vote share in the nation by his winning the state 68% to 31%. Only Obama's birth state of Hawaii and Washington, D.C. were stronger Democratic victories. The same held true in 2012, when Obama carried Vermont 67% to 31%.
Vermont's two Senators are Democrat Patrick Leahy, the longest-serving member of the Senate, and independent Bernie Sanders. The state is represented by an at-large member of the House, Democrat Peter Welch, who succeeded Sanders in 2007.
In 2010 Vermont was the sixth highest ranked state for Well-Being in a study by Gallup and Healthways. In 2010, the state stood third in physical well-being of children.
In 2010, Vermont was ranked the highest in the country for health outcomes.
In 2000 the state implemented the Vermont Child Health Improvement Program to improve preventive services and management of chronic conditions. In 2011, the state ranked third in the nation in child health system performance. In 2011, the March of Dimes gave Vermont an "A," ranking it number one in the country on its Prematurity Report Card.
In 2008 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. The state scored well in cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer occupational fatalities, prevalence of health insurance, and low infant mortality. A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking. While ranking sixth from best for adults in obesity in 2009, the state still had 22% obese with a rate of 27% for children 10–17. The ranking for children was ninth best in the nation. In 1993, the obesity rate for adults was 12%. Vermonters spend $141 million annually in medical costs related to obesity. The combined figures for overweight and obese adults rose from 40.7% in 1990 to 58.4% in 2010. This is better than most other states.
In 2011, Vermont led the nation in the rate of young people who had consumed alcohol in the past month; one-third of people aged 11 through 20. One-fifth of that group had binged during that time. The state was second for the use of marijuana by young people; 30% of adults 18 to 25 in the past month.
In 2009, Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria.
Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit or license is not required for purchasing or carrying firearms. Concealed Carry and Open Carry of a firearm is legal over the age of 16, with those below 16 requiring parental permission.
In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states.
In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities. In 2007, a third of fatal crashes involved a drunken driver. In 2008, Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest uninsured motorists – 6%.
Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas on 28 occasions from 1963 to 2008.
In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts per billion of smog which is undesirable.
In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in urban areas. They constitute a traffic threat since they are unaware of vehicles. There are several deaths each year from automobiles striking moose.
In 2008, about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the federal government, Medicare, Tri-Care and the Veteran's Administration. An additional 10,000 work for employers who provide insurance under federal law under ERISA. About 20% of Vermonters receive health care outside of Vermont; 20% of the care provided within the state is to non-Vermonters. In 2008, the state had an estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005. In 2008, the Vermont Health Access Program for low-income, uninsured adults cost from $7 to $49 per month. A "Catamount Health" premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who do not qualify for other programs. Total monthly premiums ranged from $60 to $393 for an individual. There was a $250 deductible. Insured paid $10 toward each generic prescription. 16.9% of residents 18 to 35 were uninsured, the highest group.
Health care spending increased from $2.3 billion in 2000 to $4.8 billion in 2009. In 2009, adult day care services cost more in Vermont than any other state – $150 daily.
The state started air drops of rabies bait for raccoons in 1997. Known rabies cases in raccoons peaked in 2007 at 165. The program is in cooperation with neighboring states and Canada.
Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national, which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average. This puts Vermont 11th-best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias. However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US Government list of test scores shows Vermont white fourth graders performed 25th in the nation for reading (229), 26th for math (247). White eighth graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th for reading (273). The first three scores were not considered statistically different from average. White eighth graders scored significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black students were not reliable because of their small representation in the testing.
The average effective spending per pupil in Vermont was $11,548 in 2008.
Education Week ranked the state second in high school graduation rates for 2007.
In 2011, 91% of the population had graduated from high school compared with 85% nationally. Almost 34% have at least an undergraduate degree compared with 28% nationally.
In 2013, the ratio of teachers to pupils was the lowest in the country.
Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont-born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing.
Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, University of Vermont (UVM), and fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Bennington College, Burlington College, Champlain College, Goddard College, Marlboro College, Middlebury College, Saint Michael's College, the Vermont Law School, and Norwich University.
Vermont Olympic gold medalists include Barbara Cochran, Hannah Kearney, Kelly Clark, Ross Powers, and Hannah Teter.
The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, a single-A minor league baseball affiliate of the Oakland Athletics, based in Burlington. They were named the Vermont Expos prior to 2006. Up until the 2011 season, they were the affiliate of the Washington Nationals (formerly the Montreal Expos).
The Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 and 2008 American Basketball Association national champions, were a franchise of the Premier Basketball League, and were based in Barre and Burlington from the fall of 2006 through the winter of 2011.
Currently the highest teams in basketball, representing Vermont are Vermont Catamounts (NCAA), two teams - male and female.
A semi-professional football team, the Vermont Ice Storm, is based in South Hero. It plays its home games at the Colchester High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League.
Winter sports are very popular in New England and Vermont's winter sports attractions are a big part of Vermont tourism. Some well known attractions include, Burke Mountain Ski Area, Jay Peak Resort, Killington Resort, The Quechee Club Ski Area, and Smugglers' Notch Resort.
Vermont natives in the snowboarding profession include: Kevin Pearce, Ross Powers, Hannah Teter, and Kelly Clark. Others learned snowboarding in the state such as: Louie Vito, and Ellery Hollingsworth.
The Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development League soccer club that plays in St. Albans.
Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.
Vermont also has a few auto racing venues. The most popular of them is Thunder Road International Speedbowl in Barre, Vermont. It is well known for its tight racing and has become well known in short track stock car racing. Other racing circuits include the USAC sanctioned Bear Ridge Speedway, and the NASCAR sanctioned Devil's Bowl Speedway. Some NASCAR Cup drivers have come to Vermont circuits to compete against local weekly drivers such as Tony Stewart, Clint Bowyer, Kevin Harvick, Kenny Wallace, and Joe Nemechek. Kevin Lepage from Shelburne, Vermont is one of a few professional drivers from Vermont. Racing series in Vermont include NASCAR Whelen All-American Series, American Canadian Tour ,and Vermont's own Tiger Sportsman Series.
Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green, The Vermont Dairy Festival in Enosburg Falls, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Vermont Brewers Festival. The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area.
Since 1973 the Sage City Symphony, formed by composer Louis Calabro, has performed in the Bennington area. In 1988 a number of Vermont-based composers including Gwyneth Walker formed the Vermont Composers Consortium, which was recognized by the governor proclaiming 2011 as The Year of the Composer.
The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. The annual Green Mountain Film Festival is held in Montpelier.
In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
Vermont's most recent best known musical talent was the group Phish, whose members met while attending school in Vermont and spent much of their early years playing at venues across the state.
The Vermont-based House of LeMay performs several shows a year, hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball," and performs for fundraisers.
Examples of folk art found in Vermont include the Vermontasaurus in Post Mills, a community in Thetford.
The rate of volunteerism in Vermont was eighth in the nation with 37% in 2007. The state stood first in New England. In 2011, Vermont residents were ranked as the healthiest in the country. Also in 2011, Vermont was ranked as the fourth most peaceful state in the United States. In 2011, Vermont residents were ranked as the sixth most fit/leanest in the country. Vermonters were the second most active citizens of state with 55.9% meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's physical activity requirements. Vermont was ranked as the twelfth happiest state in the country.
There are a number of museums in the state.
State symbols include:
Vermont is the birthplace of former U.S. Presidents Chester A. Arthur and Calvin Coolidge.
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