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Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 14 November 2020
Bio-Identical HGH Therapy may be a potent option for patients struggling with NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) associated with obesity in the near future. A small pilot study was conducted by Dr. Takara Stanley and research partners and was published in the medical journal Clinical Endocrinology. While this research is in its preliminary phases, the potential is real. Liver Disease is a growing problem in the United States, owing not only to alcohol and addiction but to obesity. NAFLD is one of the most diagnosed forms of Liver Disease. As the condition increases in severity, it progresses into a condition known as NASH (Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis).

What Causes Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

NAFLD is inflammation caused by the accumulation of liver fat. While alcoholism can lead to Fatty Liver Disease, NAFLD specifically refers to Fatty Liver Disease not caused by the abuse of alcohol. This condition causes cirrhosis, the buildup of scar tissue, and, eventually, liver cancer. A growing body of research suggests that NAFLD is strongly correlated with diabetes and obesity, which leads to metabolic syndrome. Other symptoms of metabolic syndrome include obesity centered around the midsection, high blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, increased triglycerides, and high cholesterol.

How Can Human Growth Hormone Treatments Help Patients With Liver Complications?

Many studies have shown that HGH Therapy is very effective at increasing the rate of Liver Regeneration. As of today, there are no FDA-Approved Medical Treatments for NAFLD, leaving doctors to merely recommend exercise, weight loss, and lifestyle changes. While these holistic options provide benefits to patients, it's critical to find effective treatments to improve the lives of these patients and combat NAFLD/NASH. Human Growth Hormone plays an important role in metabolismIt helps free energy from fat cells for use by the body. Much of the heavy work associated with Growth and Metabolism is associated with IGF-1 and other Growth Factors/Hormones released in the HGH Hormone Cascade. There is some evidence that diminished HGH Production is one of the contributing factors which lead to obesity. For this study, 24 patients were selected for evaluation (11 males/13 females). 18 patients completed the course, and none left due to side-effects. All patients were clinically obese, with a minimum 5% hepatic fat fraction (11% average). Experimental patients received Norditropin HGH Injections, while the control group received no medical intervention. Researchers discovered that patients taking Growth Hormone Therapy experienced a 36% reduction in liver fat, whereas control patients only saw a decrease of 3.6%. If Liver Fat falls below 5%, Steatosis is considered resolved. 5 of 9 patients in the experimental group surpassed this goal, whereas only a single untreated patient reached the same outcome.

Other Benefits of HGH for Fatty Liver Disease

HGH Patients also experienced lower levels of several liver enzymes associated with liver damage and inflammation. Beyond that, Growth Hormone Injections led to improvements in lean muscle mass, body fat, and BMI. IGF-1 Levels rose to healthy levels and did not increase C-reactive protein, and did not impact blood sugar/fat. While future study is necessary, the results are favorable, in line with similar research in both human and animal models.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 21 June 2020

Professional sports is big business. Team owners are interested in protecting their assets and providing for the best chance for their athletes to succeed. In the past, there have been widespread issues with players abusing Performance Enhancing Drugs to maximize results. Many drugs have been used illicitly for these purposes, including Steroids, Testosterone, and Human Growth Hormone

HGH and Other PEDs Likely Offer Critical Benefits

As we learn more about the vast benefits of these Hormone Therapy Treatments, it becomes incredibly clear that PEDs are no longer a black-and-white issue, and there are nuances at play. If drugs like Human Growth Hormone are blanket-banned, it prevents athletes from the enormous benefits offered by these treatments when used as a mechanism for healing and rehabilitation.

Mark Cuban, the owner of the Dallas Mavericks, is one of the central voices advocating for a revaluation of the manner in which we think about treatments long associated with Performance Enhancement. As we learn more about how Growth Hormone works, it becomes clear that HGH Injection Therapy offers benefits that may be critical to protecting players from the wear-and-tear of a professional athletic career.

Mark Cuban's Michigan State HGH Study

Cuban was so intrigued by the potential benefits of Human Growth Hormone that he commissioned a study to reveal its potential. A recent study produced by researchers from the University of Michigan provides compelling evidence that HGH Treatments may facilitate improved recovery from ACL surgery, one of the most common major injuries that college/professional athletes experience.

In this study, patients were injected with Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone as part of their Rehabilitation protocol. When compared to placebo, they found that athletes that were prescribed HGH had significantly stronger knee joints than participants that received a placebo. This change in strength was not due to a difference in muscle mass, but the strength of the joint itself.

Those that took Growth Hormone Shots had 29% stronger knee-extension capacity than their counterparts. It's hypothesized that knee strength rebounds more quickly and completely because HGH invigorates the process, which restores cartilage, allowing the joint to withstand greater tension.

Results of HGH ACL Research Spur Mark Cuban to Voice His Opinion

Mark Cuban took these results and was quick to advocate for further research. He is confident that HGH Therapy provides an opportunity for players to heal faster and get back to living their dreams. It's also critical to recognize that regular people and amateur athletes frequently experience these same injuries. Cuban understands that there is an innate difference in using HGH to heal and recover from injury and using it chronically to gain an unfair advantage versus competition. Both Mark Cuban and the researchers suggest adding a Therapeutic Use Exemption for the fair medical use of PEDs.

Human Growth Hormone has the potential to be a powerful tool in the arsenal of doctors, therapists, and personal trainers that help patients recover from injuries that interrupt the rhythm of day-to-day life. It's almost certain that HGH Injection Therapy will be used for a wider range of medical issues, to the benefit of patients across the country.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 17 May 2020

HGH Therapy has shown promise at treating several different ailments. While Bio-Identical Growth Hormone was first used as a means to treat Human Growth Hormone Deficiency, researchers have discovered several other areas where HGH Injections may be beneficial. For example, Growth Hormone Therapy has been FDA-approved for HIV-Associated Cachexia. It also shows promise as a mechanism to speed up and advance healing processes associated with injury and illness.

Recent research shows that Bio-Identical HGH may be able to help patients with Liver Disease/Cirrhosis reverse liver damage and improve long-term outcomes.

Dangers of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver is one of the most prominent causes of death in the world today. While many people experience Cirrhosis due to alcoholism or substance abuse, the condition is also caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatitis, among others. Liver Cirrhosis vastly increases the risk of several life-threatening health issues such as Liver Cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding, and a build-up of toxins in the brain that leads to reduced neurological function and death.

Furthermore, patients with Liver Cirrhosis also experience malnutrition because the liver is unable to adequately process and distribute nutrients. This malnutrition can impact the outcome of liver-transplantation, making it harder for the body to adapt and survive after transplantation. One reason for these issues is that advanced Cirrhosis leads to significant HGH Resistance, which also suppresses IGF-1 levels, along with IGF Binding Protein.

Could HGH Injections Benefit Patients with Liver Cirrhosis?

Recent studies provide evidence that Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone Therapy may help patients with Cirrhosis reduce HGH Resistance, boost Growth Hormone Levels, and increase the volume of IGF-1 in the bloodstream, as well as IGFBP-3. Furthermore, HGH Injections also appear to speed up liver regrowth in patients that have partial liver removal. The liver is unique because it is the only visceral organ that can completely regenerate, and Human Growth Hormone helps advance this process.

HGH is critical to healing after liver surgery. Growth Hormone boosts survival rate and mitigates inflammation after surgery. Growth Hormone is crucial in liver restoration because it activates HLA-G protein, which controls liver inflammation. Small-scale studies have shown that HGH Therapy is linked to improved outcomes and reduced mortality risk associated with partial liver removal.

While there is a lot of disparate research regarding various potential benefits of HGH Therapy for Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver, there is little information regarding the effect of long term Growth Hormone Treatment in patients dealing with Cirrhosis.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 15 January 2015

The Effects of HGH Deficiency Upon One of a Pair of Twins

You may not be able to tell immediately, but Axel and Kyan Crossley-Coe are identical twins. They are three years old. In spite of being identical twins, Axel is much shorter than his brother, owing directly to Human Growth Hormone Deficiency. Even though Axel clearly suffers from HGH Deficiency, he is unable to get the treatment that he needs, because he is just slightly above the threshold which qualifies him for a subsidy.

In fact, he's only three millimeters over the limit to qualify for Injectable HGH via a subsidy known as Pharmac. This means that if he were three millimeters taller, his family could get this life-changing Growth Hormone Therapy for free, but because of bureaucratic issues, they have to come up with the money for the treatment on their own.

The mother of the twins is named Kayla, and she is working to raise the funds for treatment via an online fund raising site called Givealittle.

Axel clearly isn't producing enough Human Growth Hormone to meet his needs, but his problems go far beyond HGH Deficiency. He also has issues with jaundice, and he has severe hearing problems. With regard to HGH Deficiency, Axel is 9.25 pounds lighter than his brother and 5.5 inches shorter than his brother.

In addition to his issues getting the HGH Treatment that he needs, his physicians are having trouble pinpointing the exact root of his health problems because they are so varied. Axel's mother had her twins at the early age of sixteen. It's not completely surprising that the child experienced such issues, because twins and young pregnancies both have an increased risk of complications.

In fact, Kayla did not realize that she was pregnant until she was over 5 months pregnant, when she received a heart scan which revealed that she was going to have twins. Further scans showed that there was something wrong, however. Kyan was twice the size of his brother, and Axel was not getting the resources that he needed in the womb, as a result of a condition known as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In this condition, one of the fetuses crowds the majority of the placenta, preventing the other twin from getting the resources it needs to thrive.

Things were so bad that doctors estimated that he only had a five percent chance of surviving. The mother had the opportunity to abort Axel to increase the chances that Kyan would thrive, but she chose not to. After 6 months of pregnancy, she went to the hospital for a Caesarean section to save the children. The twins were of significantly different sizes. Axel was only 11.8 inches long and 1 pound, 2 ounces, whereas Kyan was 16.1 inches long and 3 pounds, 2 ounces. The mother remembers that she was not even able to hold the Axel after he was born, because of how severe his health situation was.

The problems did not resolve through early development, and after three years, Kyan is still growing and developing like a normal and healthy boy, and Axel still lags far behind. In terms of weight, Kyan is perfectly average for his age, but Axel is so far behind that normal charting techniques don't even have his size listed.

Recently, Axel's problems became worse, and he began quickly losing weight. The problem was so bad that he had to start using a feeding tube to get proper nutrition. Furthermore, physicians also found that Axel had lost his hearing, and are perplexed as to the reason why such a change even occurred.

Kayla is now hoping that her fund raising efforts will raise enough money to get young Axel the HGH Therapy that he needs to be more like his brother Kyan. Like elsewhere, Human Growth Hormone Injection Therapy is quite expensive for children, because they need so much. In fact, the treatment costs around ten thousand dollars each year. It may be expensive, but it provides absolutely life changing benefits.

With Injectable Bio-Identical HGH, Axel will be able to grow taller and stronger. Human Growth Hormone also stimulates the organs and causes them to grow to a normal size for his age. Growth Hormone also stimulates metabolism, so it should lead him to start eating much more readily on his own.

Human Growth Hormone Incredibly Important for Human Development

As you can see by reading about this child's story, Human Growth Hormone is vital to the normal and healthy development of a child. Axel's problems may be more complex than simply HGH Deficiency, but the lack of efficient Growth Hormone Production is seriously affecting his health and exacerbating other health issues that he is experiencing as a result of his prenatal condition.

Human Growth Hormone promotes cellular metabolism. That is the primary job of the hormone. During childhood and adolescence, children produce high levels of HGH, and this directly leads to their normal growth and development. Growth Hormone causes the organs to grow normally to meet the needs of the growing body. It causes the long bones, particularly those of the arms and legs, to grow longer, until the end of puberty, when the epiphyseal plates close.

HGH also plays a strong role in psychological and cognitive health, and without getting the therapy and treatment that he needs, he will lag even further cognitively behind his twin brother. Without Human Growth Hormone, it simply isn't possible to be a normal child, and it certainly isn't possible to grow up to be a normal adult.

If a child like Axel does not receive Growth Hormone Therapy, he will have health issues throughout his entire life. HGH promotes cellular metabolism, and if he doesn't produce enough of the hormone, he will be more likely to be overweight or obese, and he will also suffer from significant energy issues which will impact his ability to perform daily tasks easily which others do thoughtlessly. He will also have major issues with frailty, because the muscles feed heavily off of not only Testosterone, but Human Growth Hormone, along with the bones.

This article clearly shows how important that HGH Therapy is, and hopefully, young Axel will get the treatment that he needs and deserves.

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Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 15 January 2015

Diabetes Cure on the Horizon?

Diabetes is one of the biggest health issues in the United States today, affecting millions of Americans. Diabetes is the seventh most common cause of death in America today, and for that reason, it is a huge area in American medical research. What if it were possible to cure Diabetes? Imagine how many lives would be saved and how much longer people would live. Well, new research shows that there may be hope for Diabetes sufferers, and one day in the near future, they may be able to overcome the disease entirelyat least patients with Type-1 Diabetes.

What is the Difference between Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes?

Type-1 Diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in childhood. It is the least common of the two forms of Diabetes, affecting only five to ten percent of diabetes sufferers. Type-1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system of the patient directly attacks the pancreatic islet cells which produce insulin. Over the course of years, the ability to produce insulin is entirely depleted in the patient, and they need to take insulin to survive. Insulin is the hormone which facilitates the transfer of energy from glucose to the cells.

Type-2 Diabetes, on the other hand, is far more common, and generally becomes an issue in adulthood. It is largely a lifestyle disease, in which the patient develops what is known as insulin resistance, where their body loses the ability to effectively transport glucose. Historically, Type-2 Diabetes has been rare in adolescent patients, but the number of patients with this condition is rising. Type-2 Diabetes is caused largely by a diet which is high in sugar and processed carbohydrates, which causes sugar levels and insulin levels to spike in an unnatural way. Over time, the body often loses its ability to effectively produce insulin as a result of this condition, necessitating medical treatment.

UAB Diabetes Study

In a groundbreaking study by the University of Alabama Birmingham, scientists have discovered that there is a medication that is currently available on the market which has the ability to counteract Diabetes in animal subjects. Mammals, at least for the most part, all use insulin the same way, so what works in mammals should also work in human beings. The results of this study were so promising that they led directly to a donation of over two million dollars by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, in order to attempt to replicate the results in a human clinical study.

This research study is titled The Repurposing of Verapamil as a Beta Cell Survival Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes. The study is projected to start in winter of 2015, and is ultimately the result of a decade plus of combined research led by the University of Alabama Birmingham Comprehensive Diabetes Center.

How Does Verapamil Cure Diabetes?

This study is promoting a revolutionary new form of diabetes treatment. Scientists and medical professionals have long known that the beta cells of the pancreas are responsible for the production of insulin, but there have been no medical approaches designed to promote the regeneration of these vitally important cells. When glucose enters the blood stream, the Beta Cells produce insulin to transport glucose to cells.

Researchers at UAB have discovered that elevated blood sugar leads directly to the excess production of a particular protein known as TXNIP. Beta cells produce TXNIP, and patients with Diabetes produce way too much of it. Before UAB discovered their function and processes, no one knew what these proteins did. Unfortunately, when the Beta Cells have elevated levels of TXNIP for too long, this is toxic, and contributes to the death of the cells. This is why Type-2 Diabetes gets worse over time.

Using this knowledge, UAB Researchers tested the effectiveness of various existing drugs upon the TXNIP concentrations within Beta Cells. What they discovered was that one particular medication, known as Verapamil, had the ability to suppress TXNIP levels significantly in rodent models. Rodents with blood sugar levels higher than 300 mg/dl and clear diabetes were given Verapamil treatment, and the medication was so effective, that the rodents essentially no longer suffered from Diabetes.

What Is Verapamil Used For?

Verapamil is a type of medication which is known as a Calcium Channel Blocker. The medication is designed to alleviate symptoms such as chest pain and high blood pressure by encouraging vasodilation of the blood vessels and the heart. The medical treatment is also sometimes used for certain conditions in which the heart beats irregularly.

This is not the first time that a medication designed to facilitate vasodilation has shown potential outside of its established or hypothesized use. Viagra is an effective erectile dysfunction medication which was first synthesized in order to treat similar conditions, but was found to be more effective as an erectile aid.

Information Regarding Verapamil Diabetes Trial

Now that they have established the effectiveness of Verapamil in animal subjects, it's time to test the effectiveness and safety of the treatment on human patients. In this study, 52 participants will be selected for study. Selected patients will range in age between 19 and 45. This study is looking to select participants that have just been diagnosed with Type-1 Diabetes in the three months prior to recruitment.

These patients will be divided into a control and experimental group. Half of the patients will be given placebo, whereas the other half of the patients will receive Verapamil. All patients will continue using Insulin Treatments for the duration of the study. Throughout the study, the patients will also carry a device which is designed to constantly monitor their blood sugar levels for the entire year, providing researchers with vital information with regard to their health state.

Patients experiencing unexplained weight loss, fatigue, excessive urination, or significant thirst are encouraged to visit their doctor in order to see if they suffer from Diabetes and could potentially benefit from this study.

Research Indicates that Verapamil May Be a Highly Effective Diabetes Treatment

The lead researcher in charge of this trial is Dr. Anath Shalev, who is the head of the University of Alabama Birmingham Comprehensive Diabetes Center. He explains that it is clear from the Center's research that Verapamil has the capability to both stop diabetes before it starts and cure those that currently suffer from Diabetes, at least in rodent subjects. By suppressing TXNIP in Beta Cells, it appears possible to fully protect and preserve the production of Insulin.

Verapamil appears to be effective, or at least highly beneficial, for practically all patients suffering from Diabetes, even those that are suffering from severe Diabetes. The primary cause of Type-1 Diabetes is the death of Beta Cells, and if it is possible to prevent these cells from dying or create an atmosphere in which they can regenerate, this would be huge. As of today, there are no treatments of this kind that are available to patients.

The secondary head of this Diabetes Cure Study is Fernando Ovalle. He also played a major role in creating this study, and will be responsible for making sure everything goes to plan with the execution of the human trial. He will be in charge of collecting data, testing, treatment, and the recruitment of participants.

How Is Diabetes Treated Today?

Today, the symptoms of Diabetes are treated, rather than the root cause. In order to promote and preserve the health of the patient as effectively as possible, doctors prescribe drugs to reduce blood sugar, and also prescribe insulin in order to facilitate the effective transport of glucose to cells throughout the body. When blood sugar levels are too high, it essentially becomes toxic, and damages the circulatory system.

If it is possible to treat Diabetes with Verapamil, this will change the way that Diabetes is treated world wide, and could even eliminate the need for Insulin and other drugs in the long term. As people are growing older and more susceptible to Diabetes, a treatment like this could save so many lives and billions of dollars each year.

Diabetes is an American Epidemic

Diabetes is one of the most dangerous and widespread diseases in the United States today. In fact, it is currently the 7th most common mortality risk among Americans. The devastating effects of Diabetes are widespreadThe circulatory issues associated with diabetes lead to a host of health issues, including amputation, kidney disease, blindness, hypertension, and heart attack.

Diabetes is an incredibly common condition, and the American government estimates that more than 12% of men and women over the age of 20 suffer from diabetes, whether they realize it or not. Beyond that 12%, it is believed that 37% of patients are pre-diabetic, meaning that their blood sugar levels are elevated. This means that, in the near future, it is nearly undeniable that the number of people with Diabetes will continue to grow. Only ten years ago, 27% of Americans over 20 were considered to be pre-diabetic.

New cases of Diabetes continue to increase in the United States, but are finally starting to slow down. Over 8% of adults were discovered to have Diabetes in the year 2012. Certain populations are more susceptible to Diabetes at this time than others. Hispanics and blacks, for example, are still experiencing Diabetes at an increasing pace, as well as men and women that never graduated or only graduated high school.

It is imperative to find new and more effective treatments for Diabetes not only for the social cost but for the financial cost of the condition as well. It is estimated by the American Diabetes Association that Diabetes cost the United States almost $250 billion dollars last year.

Changes in Beta Cell Function Play a Role in both Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes

It has been clear for many years that both Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes are largely the result of diminishing Beta Cell Function. It's also been clear that both forms of Diabetes lead to the death of Beta Cells. It is only recently, and due to the diligent efforts of UAB researchers, that we have come closer to recognizing the root cause of the condition.

Interestingly enough, even adult patients with Type-1 Diabetes diagnosed in their youth still have some level of Beta Cell activity in spite of their autoimmune issues. Unfortunately, there are not enough Beta Cells to promote healthy blood sugar.

Previously, it was hypothesized that it would be possible to implant Beta Cells in order to facilitate healthier blood sugar, but in practice, this form of treatment is incredibly costly and of limited effectiveness. As a result of this, increased research is being put into figuring out a way to create an atmosphere in the pancreas and the Beta Cells where the body could regenerate its own tissues and restore its own ability to produce insulin. It appears that Verapamil may be able to do just that, suppressing the negative influence of TXNIP and allowing the Beta Cells to propagate and repopulate the Pancreatic Islets. The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation is the biggest charity in the world which promotes research to help patients with Type-1 Diabetes.

The JDRF has a number of goals with regard to the research that they choose to fund. In particular, this study was chosen because the charity places a particular emphasis on research which is designed to potentially allow patients to restore proper pancreatic function. Any study which may potentially cure Type-1 Diabetes is near the top of their list for grants, and Verapamil may lead Diabetes to know longer be a chronic condition, but an actual, reversible disease. The specific name of the JDRF initiative is the Beta Cell Restoration Research Program.

One of the means by which it would be possible to cure Diabetes would be to catch the condition relatively early and provide aggressive treatment designed to amplify the function and survival of the Beta Cells which produce Insulin. Dr. Andrew Rakeman, a director at the JDRF explains that this Verapamil study is an end result of years and decades of Diabetes basic research promoted by the charity. Before new, practicable research can be conducted, the scientific foundation must be laid for those new treatments.

As a result of all of this basic research, it is now possible for scientists to use that science to create treatments that can benefit patients and save lives. This treatment may benefit patients with both Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes. Dr. Rakeman is excited about this study because it can absolutely change the way that Diabetes is treated, and may even cure the condition, at least in some facet.

In this study, the patients will see both their established Clinical Endocrinologist and the Research Practitioners. The goal of the University of Alabama Birmingham researchers will be to assess the ability of the patient to make their own insulin, and measure how well the patient is controlling blood sugar based upon the readings on their glucose sensor. The researchers will also use a modern and advanced test called C-Peptide Response in order to assess how well the patient is able to produce his or her own insulin, and how many functional beta cells that they actually have over the course of the study.

Verapamil Has Big Advantages for Patients over Other Clinical Diabetes Trials

Because of the way that Verapamil works, it is much safer for the patient than other forms of experimental treatment being studied. Most other experimental studies use medications which modulate or suppress the immune system, in order to slow down or prevent the immune system from attacking the Beta Cells. Unfortunately, drugs like these can have significant side effects which can be very hard on the patient.

Verapamil has long been used by patients suffering from high blood pressure and other related conditions. In fact, it has been used effectively for over thirty years with no significant side-effects. As a result of this, the researchers are highly confident that the use of the medication will not lead to any severe side-effects, even if the treatment is, in the end, of limited effectiveness.

There is a lot of scientific data, derived from both animal research and in vitro human tissue studies, that shows how Verapamil works, and how it can effectively treat diabetes. If this treatment is effective, it will be the only Diabetes treatment available that actually promotes the natural proliferation of natural Insulin and the natural enhancement and proliferation of Beta Cells.

How Did Researchers Discover that Verapamil Could Be Effective for Diabetes Patients?

It took more than ten years for the original hypothesis regarding Diabetes Research to turn into actionable results. It began with a simple brainstorming question, and has developed into a totally new mechanism for Diabetes treatment.

Dr. Shalev feels strongly that this Verapamil Treatment will change the way that we treat Diabetes throughout the world. At this point, it is unclear exactly how effective that the Verapamil treatment will be. It's very much possible that this research will eventually lead patients to invigorate their Beta Cell concentrations so significantly that they can overcome the need for Insulin treatments. It's very possible that this treatment could totally cure Diabetes. Dr. Shalev is quick to point out that, although this research points to that potential conclusion, that a single year of treatmentthe duration of this particular studywill likely not lead to a total independence from Insulin.

This does not mean that Verapamil will not be extremely beneficial to patients, however. Even if Verapamil is unable to totally reinvigorate Insulin Production, increased natural Insulin Production will benefit the patient significantly even if they still need to take Insulin. This is because natural Insulin production of any kind allows the body to tweak Insulin levels to meet the needs of the body. One of the issues with Insulin Injections alone is that they can't adapt to particular circumstances and meet the ideal needs of the body accurately, which increases the risk of complications. Increased natural Insulin Production reduces the risk of these complications.

Even the concept of Verapamil will totally change the way that we think about Diabetes. This represents an entirely new area of Diabetes Study, one that the University of Alabama Birmingham is on the forefront of, along with the Southern Research Institute. The two institutions have combined forces to form the Alabama Drug Discovery Institute. In addition to the current study featuring Verapamil, they are also looking into other potential treatments that have the ability to modulate TXNIP levels in order to effectively treat diabetes by preserving and proliferating the Beta Cells of the Pancreatic Islets.

Dr. Shalev explains that none of the current treatments available provide ultimately effective treatment for Diabetes, which is why mortality rates associated with the disease are so significant. This research is the first time where there truly is hope to reverse the global Diabetes epidemic. The doctor also explains that it is due to the vigorous efforts of the University of Alabama Birmingham Comprehensive Diabetes Center and the forward thinking of the administration and the friends of the school that created an atmosphere where these advances are possible.

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Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 12 September 2017

Twelve Steps to Enhance and Preserve Your Memory

One of the most worrisome aspects of the aging process is loss of memory. Many people can handle the idea of losing some of their physical capacity, but are absolutely horrified about their memory fading. The goal of this article is to provide you with some simple tips that you can use to sharpen your memory and preserve your brain from cognitive decline. Whether you are twenty or eighty, these tips can help you stay at the top of your game!

Step One: Drink Alcohol in Moderation

Although heavy drinking can have a negative effect upon your memory, numerous studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption can have a beneficial effect upon your memory and cognitive function. This may seem surprising at first, but alcohol does have some anti-oxidant effects when used conscientiously, and this has been shown to benefit brain health.

Be careful not to abuse alcohol though. Alcohol abuse has a clear negative impact on your brain, leading to immediate (albeit temporary) cognitive impairment. Long term alcohol abuse can also impact the connections your neurons make with one another in your brain, preventing you from making memories and connections as easily.

But if you are smart with your drinking and can maintain moderate habits, there is ample evidence that light alcohol consumption can actually increase your cognitive ability. There are some studies that have been released recently that show that moderate drinkers outscore both hard drinkers and non-drinkers in certain clinical tests of cognition and memory.

Alcohol can also even reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In one study conducted in France, researchers found that two daily glasses of wine reduced the risk of Alzheimer's by 45%!

Step Two: If You Are Suffering from Depression: Seek Help

Anything in your life that leads to chronic feelings of anger or anxiety can have a negative impact on your memory. Your brain only has so many resources to allocate, and if your brain is fixated on feelings of anxiety and depression, it is pulling resources away from your memory. Depression is the number one psychiatric condition that can eat at your memory and cognitive ability.

In many cases, the root cause of your memory issues can actually be the depression itself. One of the biggest symptoms of Depression is a breakdown in your ability to concentrate. The negative feelings that your consciousness generates removes your ability to concentrate on tasks which are actually important to you, or important to your life. Depression can keep you from holding onto thoughts, and can prevent you from being successful in school or at work because it drains your focus.

One of the reasons why Depression causes these cognitive lapses is because Depression significantly increases cortisol production by the adrenal glands. Elevated cortisol levels enhance your brain's fight or flight response and have a negative impact upon your higher level brain functions.

Depression has also been correlated with a decrease in the size of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is the central area of the brain in regard to short-term memory, so Depression can literally diminish your ability to store new memories. One study in particular showed that significant depression can decrease the size of the hippocampus by as much as fifteen percent.

The condition of depression also has an impact on the forms of memories that you can retain. Individuals with a predisposition toward depression are more likely to retain negative memories than positive memories, not because of any conscious effort on their part, but because their brains are just wired to do so.

Not all hope is lost, however. Studies have shown that medications that have been proven to combat depression, like SSRIs, have the capability to also restore the normal function of the hippocampus, as well as restore its size.

Step Three: Stay Active

Although historically, philosophers and scientists have thought of the mind and the body as two different entities, it is now crystal clear that the health of the body and the health of the mind are interconnected. Physical activity has the capability to kick-start the brain and increase your capacity to retain memories.

Obesity, for example, has a chronic and negative impact on the brain, and can even increase the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Exercise is one way that the body takes care of plaque in the blood vessels and arteries, and if you remain excessively sedentary, the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively, due to a combination of built-up plaque and lack of stimulation. We all know that this plaque build-up increases the risk of heart attack significantly, but did you know that these same issues with cardiovascular health can reduce the efficiency of your memory and cognition?

The brain needs more fresh nutrients and oxygen than any other organ of the body, and if cardiovascular conditions limit the amount of fresh, oxygenated blood that reaches your brain, then the brain will not be able to function at optimal capacity. You don't have to exercise five days a week to improve your cognitive health, however. Just try to regularly do things that get your heart pumping a little bit. Start jogging occasionally, or even just walk or do some laps up and down the stairs. Study after study has shown that the more active a person is, the more it benefits their cognitive health.

Step Four: Association and Visualization

One way to increase the effectiveness of your memory on a day to day basis is to engage in visualization. This means that, when you have something important that you know you need to remember, associate the memory with vivid imagery and use your imagination. By engaging in the creative part of your brain, you increase the likelihood that you will store the memory more effectively.

Try to actively make memories, and not passively expect yourself to store the memories. When someone tells you something important, don't just tell yourself you will remember it later, actively make the memory in your own mind. Dwell on it, and dwell on the implication of the memory.

You can also effectively use word association in order to more effectively remember important (and not-so-important) details, obligations, and memories. Associate what you are trying to remember with some other memory that you already have stored, so that when you think of one memory, it instantly recalls the other thing that you are trying to remember.

By creating emphasis in your own mind with visualization and association, you enhance or reinforce the thing that you are trying to remember, improving your overall memory, and practice good memory habits which will help you in the future.

Step Five: Pay Attention

This may seem simple and obvious enough, but this is actually one of the toughest aspects of memory for many people. Research has shown that it takes time to convert a short-term memory to a long-term memory. The average amount of time it takes to store a long-term memory is eight seconds. No matter how badly you want to remember something, you will have trouble keeping it if you do not hold it in your mind for at least eight seconds.

It's also important to do things deliberately if you intend on remembering them. Too often, we do things offhand, and put too much faith in our memory. Do you ever forget where you put your keys? Or your wallet? These sorts of mistakes happen because we simply toss things aside without actually engaging our brains to ensure that we know where they are later when we need them.

In situations where you know what you are experiencing is or might be very important in the future, reduce the distractions in your mind and take stock of what really matters. Put your phone away, take your mind off the television, and engage.

Step Six: Repetition

One useful way to store memories more effectively is to utilize repetition. When you meet someone for the first time, repeat their name back to them both when you are first introduced and when you depart. You can use repetition for common lapses in memory as well. Whenever you do something like put your keys away, remind yourself immediately where you placed them. This may sound weird, but by actively engaging your brain when you perform an action, you all but ensure that you will remember them later.

This can happen with names as well. Always take the time to mentally check yourself whenever you meet a new person. It can be easy to forget the name of someone that you like and get along with because you spent so much time thinking about the conversation and the social cues that you forgot to remember his or her name. This happens more often than you'd think, and it's embarrassing!

Step Seven: Chunking

Chunking is one of the most effective ways to store complex memories. Our brains only have a limited ability to store a certain amount of items at a time. For example, our brains only really have the capability to remember an average of seven numbers in sequence. This is one reason why credit card numbers are sixteen digits and social security numbers are nine digits: They are longer than most people's brains are equipped to handle.

One way to remember long numbers or other forms of information in through the technique known as chunking. Chunking is when you convert simple information into slightly more complex relational information. Essentially, you are turning two small memories into one larger memory in which the relationship between the two items enhances your storage capacity.

With numbers, for example, it may be difficult to remember a phone number, especially if it is from an area code you are unfamiliar with. Say the number is (256) 998-2356. With this number, you can combine the ten digits into three distinct memories. You can remember that 256 is a common number of megabytes for flash drives, 998 is two less than 1000, and that the last four digits are 23456 without the four.

You can also use this strategy to remember things other than numbers. Say, if you have to remember a group of people's names, you can associate them with each other based off of the first letters of their name, or group them together by where you met them. You can also use this to commit your grocery list to memory. Rather than think about everything you need as soon as you go in, categorize your needs, and remember small groups of items as you enter different sections of the store.

Step Eight: Method of Loci

Another effective means to enhance your memory is to remember things by associating them with their location when you last saw them. One of the most obvious examples of this occurs in the way that teachers remember their students' names. Over time, all of the students tend to settle into a preferred seating arrangement, and the teacher can remember a person's name more effectively when they stay in the same spot week in and week out. When someone is absent, they simply have to reconnect the empty seat with the person that is normally seating in the seat.

This also works well with remembering directions and the location of certain destinations. Some people remember most effectively by following street names and addresses, while others find their way around the world primarily by utilizing landmarks. Landmark navigation is an explicit form of using the Method of Loci for memory. Simply by seeing an object or intermediate location, you can remember where to go next by associating the step of the direction with the location where the turn is made.

Step Nine: Take Time to Take it Easy

Although your brain thrives on activity, it is also possible to overwork your mind at the same time. In order to prevent mental burnout, allocate time every day to things and people that you enjoy. Just like your body, your brain needs time to wind down and recover from activity in order to maintain optimal function.

Being overworked or suffering from excessive anxiety can reduce your focus and prevent you from keeping your mind in tip-top shape. As we mentioned earlier, your body and brain only have so much energy, and if you work yourself ragged or have a habit of letting your mind run around in circles inside your head, you are going to be too exhausted to keep your memory strong.

It doesn't matter how you do it. You can exercise. You can meditate. You can go hang out with your friends. Just regularly arrange for time for your mind to unwind.

Step Ten: Sleep to Enhance your Memory

Sleep is perhaps the most important time of the day for your memory. Even though your brain is busy gathering new memories during the day, it is at night when your body cements those memories that you have prepared for long term storage. When you sleep, your brain goes through a process known as memory consolidation.

Optimal memory consolidation is dependent upon healthy and deep sleep, and when you commit yourself to an abridged sleep schedule, or you toss and turn at night, you prevent your brain from optimally storing the memories that you have formed. This can affect all aspects of your life. Poor sleep can cause you to struggle in exams and it can keep you from functioning at your peak while you are at work. It can also prevent you from storing memories in your personal life, and it can drain you of the mental energy you need to remember the little things, like birthdays and anniversaries.

Step Eleven: Eat Well to Improve your Memory

Like we mentioned earlier, your brain functions at its best when it has all the fuel that it needs to function. Exercise helps circulate blood to the brain, and proper diet ensures that blood is full of nutrients that your brain can use for optimization.

There are a number of foods in particular that have an impact on memory and cognition:

  • Omega-3s Studies have shown that Omega-3s have a significant impact on cognitive function. These nutrients are found in high concentrations in fish, including sardines, halibut, tuna, and salmon. Foods such as flaxseed, spinach, walnuts, and pinto beans have a lot of Omega-3s as well.

  • Fruits and Veggies Vegetables are great because they pack lots of nutrition in a small amount of calories. Most fruits and vegetables are very good for you because they are loaded with antioxidants which eliminate free radicals from your brain and help streamline its normal, healthy function. The best foods for your brain tend to be vegetables that are a deep and dark green, and fruits and veggies that are very vibrant in color like bell peppers, tomatoes, and watermelon.

  • Green Tea Green Tea is loaded with particular anti-oxidants known as polyphenols. There is evidence that Green Tea can enhance both memory and cognition, while also supplying some useful Anti-Aging Benefits as well.

  • Wine and Grape Juice These beverages, as well as beverages made from other dark fruits, such as blackberries or cranberries, are high in Resveratrol, a phytonutrient which has both been linked to improved blood flow as well as a reduced risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Control Saturated Fat and Calorie Consumption A poor diet which breaks down the health of the cardiovascular system will have both immediate and long-term effects upon the health and function of the brain. Diets full of saturated fat and calories have been linked both to reduced cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia. Avoiding bad foods is just as important as consuming healthy foods when it comes to the health of your brain.

Step Twelve: Practice, Practice, Practice

In order to preserve your memory and your cognitive ability, the best thing you can possibly do is exercise your faculties as much as possible. This is a major issue both once people graduate from school and when they retire. You are so used to exercising your brain in a particular way regularly, that when you are no longer obligated to do so, you start to let your brain off the hook.

This is one reason why so many people seem to lose their edge when they retire. They don't have the outside motivation prodding them to keep their mind active. It's the same with physical exercise. How many professional athletes or college athletes have you seen go completely soft as soon as they aren't working out for their career? This is what happens to your brain when you suddenly have significantly less responsibility in your life, and you don't make the effort to keep your memory strong.

In order to stay as sharp as possible, make sure you find activities that can keep your brain hard at work on a daily basis. Volunteer, tutor, or find social groups that encourage you to think on your feet. Make your memory a game, and keep your brain working each and every day. By making an active and conscious effort to preserve your mental sharpness, you will keep your mind younger and more active!


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 01 October 2017

In general, Metabolism refers to the chemical reactions that create a living being. Scientifically, it's a very broad term. In general terms, however, Metabolism refers to the human processes which sustain energy and burn fat in the human body.

Our metabolism is at its highest when we are young. In our adolescence and teens, boys and girls often seem to have bottomless stomachs, especially if they engage in any reasonable level of physical activity. Metabolism remains very high during the twenties as well. Around the age of twenty five, however, natural metabolism starts to drop.

After twenty five, you can expect your metabolism to drop somewhere between five and ten percent every decade, if you maintain the same level of activity. In the United States, the average adult loses somewhere between twenty and forty percent of their metabolism over the course of their adult life.

The good thing about metabolism is that it is heavily influenced by your choices and your activity level. There are a number of things that you can do to enhance your metabolism and increase your muscle building and fat burning power.

The rest of this article will provide you with some helpful tips that you can use in your day-to-day life to increase your metabolism naturally!

Tip One: Improve Your Sleeping Habits

One of the biggest factors which will control your overall metabolism is sleep. Numerous studies have shown that poor sleeping habits and sleeping patterns have a negative impact upon your overall metabolism. There are a couple of big reasons for this. One reason is that your Human Growth Hormone Production is intimately tied to healthy, deep sleep, and Low HGH Levels reduce your metabolism.

Another reason that Poor Sleeping Habits negatively impact metabolism is because the less sleep that you get, the more that you tend to eat. One study found that individuals that slept only five hours per night gained two pounds per week, compared to individuals that slept nine hours, who stayed at a stable weight.

Tip Two: Start Drinking Green Tea

Green Tea is a great drink for people that want to lose weight and increase metabolism. One reason why Green Tea is a great choice is because it has a powerful and delicious flavor while also being a zero-calorie drink. Green Tea is a completely guilt free beverage, and if you really need to add sweetener, there are sugar substitutes like Stevia which have no negative impact on health while also being a fine substitute for sugar.

This beverage is also an awesome choice for dieters because it is loaded with antioxidants, which both have the capability to preserve your health at the cellular level while also boosting your metabolism. Researchers found that the antioxidants contained within Green Tea have a direct positive impact on fat metabolism, and burn energy even when taking into account the caffeine content of the drink. Researchers found that healthy males that drank Green Tea had metabolisms which were around four percent higher than males that did not.

Tip Three: Intensify Your Workouts

All forms of exercise are good at increasing your metabolism, whether you are walking, jogging, or lifting weights. There are some forms of exercise that are more effective at boosting metabolism than others, however. The most effective means to increase metabolism through exercise is with a strategy known as High-Intensity Interval Training. This means that when you perform your normal exercises, you should incorporate sprints or other exercises which rely on bursts of energy.

One reason why these forms of exercise are so effective at increasing metabolism is that High Intensity Cardio and Weight Lifting have the ability to greatly increase your Human Growth Hormone Secretion. Although Human Growth Hormone is released at its highest levels while you are asleep, the hormone is also released in high quantities when you perform these intense exercises. By engaging in these exercises, you can kick-start your metabolism both during exercise and for hours afterward, increasing the weight loss and muscle building potential of your workout routine.

Tip Four: Never Miss Breakfast

Although Breakfast is no longer considered the most important meal of the day, the meal is incredibly important in regard to your metabolism. Even eating a small breakfast has a positive impact on your overall metabolism through the day. While you sleep, your body builds up cortisol levels until the levels reach a point which rouses you from your bed. Breakfast is like a reset button on these cortisol levels which energizes you with the calories contained within.

It's also beneficial to your metabolism never to have a heavy meal just before bed. Your body's metabolism slows to a crawl while you sleep, and more of the calories you consume are converted into fat. Late night meals also get your hormone balance out of whack and can make it even harder to get up in the morning.

Tip Five: Start Lifting Weights

In addition to High-Intensity Interval Training, just simple weight lifting has some impressive effects in regard to metabolism. Although you won't be maximizing your metabolic output with simple anaerobic training, you will increase the size and strength of your muscles, which will have positive benefits upon metabolism over time.

Weight lifting is also a powerful way to immediately burn calories. If you engage in a thorough weight lifting regimen, you can even burn as many calories as you would running. Combining both running and weight lifting provides the most significant benefits to your health, because running or other forms of cardiovascular exercise get your blood pumping, and weight lifting burns large amounts of stored energy.

Tip Six: Drink Lots of Water

One of the simplest ways to enhance your metabolism is to simply make sure you get a healthy level of water every day. There are a lot of good ways to do this, and don't think you are beholden to simply drinking water, but avoid sodas and other drinks that have a tendency to dehydrate! Studies have shown that people that remain fully hydrated with water throughout the day lose weight more quickly than those who do not.

One study found that after drinking a glass of water, metabolism increased around thirty percent in both male and female patients. The increase in metabolism initiated around ten minutes after consumption, and metabolism remained enhanced for thirty to forty minutes after drinking. One interesting outcome of the study was that researchers found that male subjects primarily increased fat metabolism, whereas female patients primarily saw an increase in carbohydrate metabolism.

Tip Seven: Add Spice to Your Meals

You may have heard the myth, but we just wanted to confirm that it is true. Spicy seasonings do have the ability to increase your metabolism. One of the simplest ways to increase your metabolic rate is to add a little cayenne pepper or some other form of spicy seasoning containing Capsaicin.

Studies have shown that adding seasonings containing Capsaicin has the capability to increase your metabolic rate by around eight percent on average. Capsaicin also benefits healthy eaters because it helps you feel more full more quickly.

Another study showed that males that consumed appetizers which contained hot sauce tended to eat an average of two hundred calories less than men that did not. Capsaicin is also recognized for having anti-inflammatory benefits, as well as for increasing blood flow and opening up blood vessels.

Tip Eight: Engage in Regular Cardiovascular Activity

Cardiovascular exercise is also another potent means to enhance metabolism. Cardio has the ability to increase metabolism for an extended period of time. One clinical study revealed that a forty-five minute bike ride had the capacity to increase metabolism over the course of the next twelve hours.

It's also easy to combine High-Intensity Interval Training into your cardiovascular exercise. At regular intervals in your cardio, enter a sprinting speed in order to engage your anaerobic muscle tissue and squeeze out extra energy burning power. A healthy exercise routine which combines cardio, High-Intensity Interval Training, and Weight Training will produce the maximum level of benefit. And don't forget to drink plenty of water!

Tip Nine: Start Drinking Coffee!

Okay, we realize that a lot of you already drink coffee, but did you know that coffee is highly effective at enhancing your metabolism? Coffee is a highly efficient means to get a jolt of caffeine without downing too many unnecessary calories. Coffee also delivers caffeine to the body quickly, and metabolism will slowly increase to a peak after around three hours. The caffeine in coffee increases your heart rate, which boosts your calorie-burning power.

Coffee also contains a few other natural ingredients which have the capability to increase metabolism. One of them is Chlorogenic Acid. This chemical has been shown to slow down the rate at which carbohydrates are absorbed, increasing the energy available to burn. Coffee also has two other chemicals which function very similarly to caffeine: Theophylline and Theobromine.

Tip Ten: Start Laughing!

In recent years, researchers have started to unlock the mystery of laughter. One reason that laughter is beneficial is because it acts as a natural stress reliever. Laughter is a physiological sign that you are at ease and you have your guard down. Laughter also produces benefits within the body. It opens up the blood vessels and allows blood to flow more freely through the body.

Laughter also increases metabolism, because it both engages the muscles and encourages optimal circulation. It doesn't take a lot of laughter to produce significant benefits either. Studies have shown that around ten minutes of laughter each day is sufficient to significantly boost metabolic rate as well as feelings of well-being. Give in to laughter, your body will thank you for it.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 26 August 2014

Dopamine Hormone Guide

Dopamine is a hormone that serves many complex purposes throughout the body, although it is most well-known for its impact on reward and addiction. Dopamine belongs to both the phenethylamine and catacholamine families. Drugs from the phenethylamine family are known for their stimulant effects as well as their psychoactive effects. Catecholamines are hormones which alter the overall activity level of the central nervous system.

How Did Dopamine Get Its Name?

Dopamine gets its name directly from its chemical structure. Dopamine is an amine, meaning that it is a nitrogen-based organic molecule. Dopamine is formed when an L-DOPA molecule loses its carboxyl group. Dopamine is active both in the brain and in the peripheral systems of the body, but Dopamine acts independently as released in both contained systems.

What is the Function of Dopamine in the Brain?

Dopamine is a hormone that sends messages to other parts of the brain, also known as a neurotransmitter. There are a number of areas of the brain that are activated by Dopamine, most notably, the area associated with desire and reward, but the hormone is associated with a wide variety of other physiological actions as well.

The majority of things that we, as humans, find rewarding—delicious food, sex, drugs—cause this dopamine-based reward system to be activated. Things that are addictive have the ability to fire off these pleasure centers to an extent where the body and mind begin to crave further stimulation.

Dopamine is also related to other activities in the brain, however. It stimulates the release of other hormones, and it helps control movement. There are a number of neurological motor disorders associated with Dopamine dysfunction, including Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is a neurological, degenerative condition which causes the body to shake near-uncontrollably, while also slowly leading to immobility over time. Parkinson's is caused when the substantia nigra no longer produces the Dopamine which helps regulate motor activity.

Although Parkinson's is a chronic, degenerative disorder, it can be treated with drugs which increase the concentration of Dopamine in the brain. These drugs are also known as antipsychotics.

Other conditions which are hypothesized to be associated with dopamine-inhibition are Restless Legs Syndrome and ADHD.

What Is the Function of Dopamine in the Human Body?

Dopamine is highly active in the brain, but it also serves a number of purposes in the peripheral systems of the body, where it acts as a hormonal messenger.

  • In the cardiovascular system, dopamine blocks the release of norepinephrine, causing the blood vessels to open up.

  • In the renal system, the hormone encourages urination and the evacuation of sodium.

  • Dopamine inhibits the production of insulin by the pancreas

  • In the gastrointestinal system, Dopamine slows down the rate at which foods pass through the system, and it also helps protect the lining of the intestines.

  • In the immune system, Dopamine slows down the activity of white blood cells.

Aside from the cardiovascular system, all peripheral effects of Dopamine are considered paracrine activity—this means that Dopamine is released in the immediate vicinity of where it is absorbed by nearby cells, exerting its influence.

How do Medications Affect the Release of Dopamine?

Because of the importance of the hormone, there are a variety of drugs available which affect the way that the body secretes or utilizes Dopamine. Bio-Identical Dopamine Injections are a common form of treatment, but Dopamine, when administered intravenously, is incapable of passing through the blood-brain barrier. Dopamine is frequently used as an emergency treatment for patients suffering from shock or heart failure, for example.

Because there is no way to directly deliver Dopamine to the brain, the most effective way to increase Dopamine levels via medication is through the Dopamine precursor, L-DOPA. L-DOPA does have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier, and is one of the most common treatments for Parkinson's, because it can suppress tremors by providing Dopamine to struggling areas of the brain.

Drugs which stimulate Dopamine are almost always addictive in high quantities, but they are effective at modest doses to alleviate ADHD. Antipsychotics, on the other hand, are medications which suppress the activity of Dopamine in the body. There are similar drugs that suppress Dopamine through other means that are highly effective at treating nausea.

Dopamine and the Brain

The area of the brain that is central to the body's physiological reward system is located in the ventral tegmental area, and nerves in this region secrete dopamine in response to or in preparation of reward. After Dopamine is produced it travels to the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens.

Dopamine also controls motor ability, but does so through a different mechanism which does not interact directly with the pleasure pathway. In order to help control movement, Dopamine is released by neurons in the substantia nigra, and the hormone travels to the striatum. The striatum is responsible for our mind's ability to control our movements, and it also allows for fine motor function by suppressing the body's minor conscious movements to enhance control. It also plays a role in social inhibition.

Dopamine Transmitters

Dopamine is a hormone which plays a wide variety of roles. It is a reward mechanism, it stimulates cognition, motivation, arousal, and physical self-control. There are a number of automatic functions that are related to Dopamine as well, such as the sensations of nausea and sexual pleasure, as well as lactation.

Perhaps surprisingly, there aren't a whole lot of neurons in the brain that are dedicated primarily to Dopamine production. In fact, the entire brain only has about 400,000 of these neurons, and they are located in very particular areas of the brain. In spite of their small number, they have a widespread impact on physiological function.

Areas of the Brain Which Release Dopamine

The Substantia Nigra - Dopamine and Fine Motor Control

As we mentioned earlier, Dopamine plays a vital role in the body's ability to control its movements. Dopamine exerts control over motor function through the substantia nigra, which is an area of dark brain tissue that is attached to the basal ganglia. Most of the Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra are located in an area known as the pars compacta.

The cells which emit Dopamine in this area can become damaged quite easily, and if a large portion of these cells die, it brings about symptoms that are very similar to Parkinson's Disease.

The Ventral Tegmental Area - Dopamine, Motivation, and Reward

Another area of the brain with dense Dopamine activity is the ventral tegmental area. It is this area of the brain that is responsible for providing the psyche with motivation. Researchers have actually noted that the actions of Dopamine in the ventral tegmental area affect psychological motivation in a similar manner that the nucleus accumbens affects the fine control of motor activity. This means that the ventral tegmental area is also responsible for controlling fine cognitive activity as well, including the mind's ability to make decisions.

Dopamine and the Hypothalamus

There are also cells which produce Dopamine which are located in the posterior hypothalamus, which extend into the spinal cord, but medical researchers are not completely sure how Dopamine impacts the body through this route. There is evidence backing the hypothesis that this Dopamine pathway controls the suppression of motor movement in the body, and those with Restless Legs Syndrome suffer from Dopamine Deficiency in this area of the brain. Restless Legs Syndrome makes it hard to sleep, resulting from the unconscious movements of the body, which is most severe in the legs.

Dopamine and Lactation

Dopamine Neurons in the Periventricular Nucleus and the Arcuate Nucleus suppress the release of breast milk, which is encouraged through the release of prolactin. Dopamine produced in this part of the brain flows into the pituitary gland. The body produces Dopamine as a means to prevent lactation, and when mothers prepare to nurse, this pathway suppresses the production of Dopamine, which allows lactation to take place.

When discussed in the context of this system, Dopamine is often referred to by other names, including Prolactostatin, Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone, or Prolactin-Inhibiting Factor

Dopamine, Puberty, and Sex Hormone Production

This area of the brain is tightly interconnected with the Hypothalamus. In order for the body to produce sex hormones, Dopamine is released from the Zona Incerta into the Hypothalamus, where the hormone encourages the production of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone. The number of Dopamine Receptors in the brain increases dramatically during this period, which helps encourage the rapid onset of sexual changes associated with puberty.

Dopamine and Eyesight

Dopamine also plays a role in eyesight. During the day, amacrine cells in the retina produce Dopamine which simultaneously increases the receptivity of cone cells while reducing the influence of rods. This mechanism makes it easier to see during the day. At night, Dopamine production in this area declines, making it easier to see in dim light.

Dopamine Activity In the Body

As Dopamine is unable to cross from the blood stream into the brain, any Dopamine that is produced by the peripheral systems of the body has no direct impact on Dopamine activity within the brain. There is a lot of Dopamine that travels through the circulatory system, but researchers are still learning how Dopamine impacts the physiology of the body via this pathway.

Some Dopamine is absorbed through the diet, but the body converts this Dopamine into a different form that researchers have discovered no use for. This form of Dopamine is eventually released after it is filtered out by the kidneys.

It is believed that an active form of Dopamine is produced by certain organs, including those in the digestive system and those in the sympathetic nervous system. Physiologically active Dopamine can go through a number of processes in the body. It is sometimes converted by the adrenal glands into norepinephrine, an important hormone which regulates fight-or-flight mechanisms. It can also activate receptor sites throughout the body, or can simply be metabolized.

There are numerous receptors for Dopamine in the arteries. Dopamine activity in this area suppresses the production of norepinephrine and opens up the arteries.

Dopamine and the Immune System

Dopamine has a powerful effect upon the immune system, especially upon the circulatory system, bone marrow, and the spleen. Also, Dopamine suppresses the activity of white blood cells. Cells in the immune system have the ability to release Dopamine, so it is believed that Dopamine helps prevent the white blood cells from going into overdrive.

Dopamine and the Renal System

There are a number of locations in the kidneys that react with Dopamine, and Dopamine is actually produced by the kidneys by tubule cells. Dopamine serves a number of purposes in this system. It encourages filtration, helps draw sodium from the blood stream, and enhances blood flow to the organ. If the kidneys lose their ability to effectively produce Dopamine, this can lead to issues such as hypertension and elevated sodium levels.

Dopamine and the Pancreas

Dopamine plays an intricate role in the function of the pancreas. The pancreas has two sections, the endocrine area and the exocrine area. The exocrine section of the pancreas helps control digestion, releasing substances such as enzymes into the digestive tract to help break down and absorb food. Dopamine plays a role in this process, although researchers are not completely sure of its function. Researchers hypothesize that Dopamine both slows down the rate at which the body processes food and also preserves the inner lining of the intestines.

The areas of the pancreas which regulates internal health are known as the islets of Langerhans. This area is responsible for the production of hormones that are released into the blood stream, one of which is insulin. The cells within the islets of Langerhans which produce insulin are known as beta cells, and it is believed that these cells are receptive to the influence of Dopamine, and that Dopamine activation suppresses the production of insulin.

Dopamine and Risk

There is a strong correlation between Dopamine levels in the brain and one's desire and ability to take risks. Individuals with lower levels of Dopamine activity in the brain tend to be more cautious and are less likely to seek out risk, while individuals with high levels of natural Dopamine production are more likely to enjoy and thrive on risk.

Dopamine is the reason why, when we do something that takes effort and risk, it elicits a feeling of satisfaction. Dopamine encourages us to go outside of our comfort zone and do things we normally wouldn't do. It causes one to thrive on risk, experiencing a literal high when they meet their goals. This often causes them to seek out larger and larger risks, as their surmounted risks are no longer as exciting.

The difference in Dopamine levels among different groups of people explains why some people are happy with comfortable lives and are risk averse, while others seem to thrive on the sensations associated with risk.

Part of what controls Dopamine activity in the brain is the existence of what are known as autoreceptors. Autoreceptors bind with Dopamine and reduce their activity in the body. Researchers have found that people that enjoy risk have fewer of these Dopamine inhibitors, which causes them to be more interested in engaging in risk-taking.

Many people are addicted to Adrenaline. This is the sensation that happens when we ride roller coasters or get in dangerous situations. Adrenaline rewards risky behaviors, but it doesn't reward stepping out of one's comfort zone, necessarily. Whereas Adrenaline makes people love driving fast and getting into fights, Dopamine makes people want to engage in pursuits which might deter others. Dopamine doesn't engage the fight-or-flight response, it simply causes a person to downplay risks and be more likely to engage in out-of-the-box activities.

Dopamine and Depression

Dopamine deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of depression. Robin Williams recent passing is perhaps a testament to this connection. After Robin Williams committed suicide, it was revealed by his wife that Robin was struggling with the initial stages of Parkinson's disease. As we've discussed, Parkinson's is a medical disorder which is caused when the motor area of the brain no longer produces enough Dopamine to regulate motor movement, which leads to the tremors and shaking associated with the disorder.

Reduced Dopamine levels also can lead to depression, because the reward system of the brain is not as active. The body and mind simply do not experience pleasure in the same way, and this increases the likelihood of depression. In Williams' case, depression led him to suicide.

Dopamine also controls one's sense of motivation. In many cases when people truly want to do something but can't generate the willpower, this is a result of Dopamine Deficiency.

Parkinson's Disease and Depression are independent disorders, but one is more likely to occur when the other is present. The conditions also play off of each other and can worsen the effects of both for the patient. The combination leads to feelings of intense isolation and anxiety, which can be incredibly difficult to overcome.


Dopamine Wiki:


The Mystery of Risk:


Dopamine Regulates Motivation to Act, Study Shows:



Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 26 August 2014

Serotonin Hormone Guide

What is Serotonin?

Serotonin is an important hormone that regulates a wide variety of functions in the body, and is most notable for its effects upon mood and well-being. Serotonin is found in a number of areas of the body, including the brain, central nervous system, platelets and digestive system. Serotonin is synthesized by the body from a hormone known as tryptophan, which most people recognize as the hormone in turkey and many other foods that makes us sleepy. Maintaining Serotonin balance is a vitally important aspect of promoting both the health of the brain and the health of the body.

Effects of Serotonin both Psychological and Physiological

Perhaps contrary to popular belief, the vast majority of serotonin that is produced by the body is secreted into the digestive system, in order to promote motility in the intestinal track. Around ninety percent of the serotonin released by the body serves this purpose.

When Serotonin is released by the digestive system, it acts upon the intestines and drains out into the blood stream over time. Platelets actually have the ability to absorb this Serotonin, and use it for their own purposes. Platelets are cells in the blood stream that don't have nuclei which are primarily used as a clotting mechanism. When the platelets begin to form a blood clot, they emit their stored serotonin, which shrinks blood vessels in the surrounding area in order to control blood flow and help stop circulatory leakage.

Serotonin also promotes cellular metabolism in certain types of tissue, and it is hypothesized that the hormone helps speed up healing in the case of injury.

Neurological Effects of Serotonin

Aside from the digestive system, the second most active area for Serotonin production is the central nervous system, where the hormone impacts physiological activity in a variety of ways. Serotonin impacts a number of regulatory systems in the brain, including sleep, appetite, and mood.

Serotonin also has some influences on learning, memory, and other cognitive abilities. There are a number of antidepressant medications that function by altering the way that the body responds to Serotonin, including Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs).

Serotonin in Nature

Serotonin is not only found in humans and animals, but also in plants and fungi. Serotonin actually has the ability to promote a pain response under some circumstances, and the hormone often coats the barbs of plants and is often a component of venom in insects. In fact, when Serotonin is administered via injection, it can sometimes cause pain to the patient, as if they were bitten or stung.

Serotonin and Digestive Health

There are also instances where Serotonin is produced by organisms within the digestive system. For example, there are amoeba which can replicate in the stomach and intestines, which release Serotonin, speeding up the digestive tract, which leads to diarrhea. Also, Serotonin is present in many fruits and seeds, which causes the digestive system to pass seeds more effectively.

Serotonin Produced by All Complex Animals

Serotonin is an important neural hormone and is produced by all animals with bilateral symmetry. Dependent upon the complexity of the organism, Serotonin serves an increasingly larger role in the nervous system. In simple animals like invertebrates, Serotonin primarily helps the organism to recognize the abundance of food in a particular area.

In more evolved animals, like vertebrates and arthropods, Serotonin not only evaluates food resources, but also plays a role in social interactions, including dominance and submission. Because reproduction and the viability of young depend on food availability, Serotonin contributes to the production of sex hormones and the motivation to breed. Serotonin also has a powerful impact on growth and mood.

Serotonin, Depression, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Serotonin plays a complex role in maintaining healthy emotional balance in human beings. People that don't produce enough Serotonin are both more likely to suffer from depression and more likely to suffer from compulsive thoughts. Related to the mechanisms of Serotonin, people that don't produce enough Serotonin are more likely to engage in risky activities, including promiscuous sex and self-harm.

There is some clinical evidence that Depression inhibits the brain's ability to produce new neurons in the brain, which suppresses activity in certain parts of the brain, in particular, those related to mood stability and well-being. It is believed that SSRIs have the ability to restore Serotonin Levels in the brain, encouraging the rejuvenation of brain cells, which helps the mind recover from depression and generally improve quality of life from a psychological perspective.

It is unclear, however, whether Serotonin Deficiency leads to depression or if it is perhaps the other way around. Of course, depending on the particulars of the patient, either or both of these issues could be at play. In patients that experience chronic depression and OCD from an early age, the cause would primarily be neurological, whereas in patients that experience depression later in life, the cause is much more likely to be the result of circumstances in their lives.

How Do SSRIs Treat Psychological Disorders such as Depression and OCD?

One of the most common treatments for both OCD and Depression is the prescription of a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor. These medications increase the activity of Serotonin in the brain by slowing down the rate at which neurons reabsorb Serotonin after releasing the hormone. The way that our body uses Serotonin is rather simple. A neuron receives a signal to release Serotonin, and it does so, releasing it a very short distance to the next neuron, where it remains active in the space between the neurons, exerting its function.

In many patients with OCD and Depression, Serotonin is released, but it may not be released in sufficient quantities, or it may not stay active for the appropriate amount of time before it is absorbed. SSRIs can treat both of these issues by increasing the Serotonin activity in the brain.

Functions of Serotonin in Humans

Serotonin and Appetite

Many animals use Serotonin as a mechanism to convince the animals to stay in the presence of food, but in humans, Serotonin is used as an appetite inhibitor. When you smell food, this causes your brain to release Dopamine, which is why you suddenly get more hungry when you smell an appetizing meal. Serotonin, on the other hand, is released when you actually eat the food, which suppresses the release of Dopamine by the brain.

There are receptors on cells in the brain that produce Dopamine, known as 5-HT2C. These points absorb Serotonin and subsequently cause the cells to cease the production of Dopamine. In fact, there are drugs and neurological disorders which cause these receptors to deactivate, which prevents the brain from recognizing when its full, which leads to overeating. Many people that feel uncontrollable urges to eat are born without a full array of these receptors.

Serotonin and Diet

As we mentioned earlier, Serotonin is synthesized by the human body from tryptophan. Interestingly enough, simply eating food with tryptophan as an ingredient, such as turkey, does not have a subsequent effect upon Serotonin Levels. On the other hand, eating pure tryptophan does lead to an increase in Serotonin Levels.

There is a reason for this. tryptophan can cross the barrier from the blood stream to the brain, but only under certain circumstances. Tryptophan only crosses the barrier when it is isolated from other proteins that are present in food. This encourages the body to only allow tryptophan produced by its own peripheral organs to pass into the system easily, although this can be bypassed by taking pure tryptophan.

There are studies that present evidence that a high-carb low-protein diet can result in an elevation in Serotonin levels, and it does so by promoting the release of Insulin. The issue with this, however, is that if this process is sustained for a long period of time, it may lead to conditions such as Type-2 Diabetes, obesity, and increasing resistance to insulin which ultimately suppress Serotonin production.

People with more muscle actually have more Serotonin than their leaner counterparts. This is because the muscles use all amino acids except tryptophan, which, because the brain absorbs more Tryptophan when there are lower concentrations of other amino acids, increases Serotonin production.

Serotonin and the Digestive System

When we eat, food passes through the digestive system. As food passes into the intestines, it encourages the release of Serotonin by what are known as enterochromaffin cells. This encourages motility because it stimulates the contraction of the intestines. There are veins which connect to the intestines, and platelets pass this area, absorbing unused Serotonin.

Serotonin is also one of the mechanisms which cause diarrhea. If the body recognizes an irritant or potential danger in the digestive system, production of Serotonin in the digestive system increases dramatically in order to pass the offending substance(s) out of the body more quickly.

If the digestive system creates more Serotonin than the platelets can transport, this increases the concentrations of free Serotonin in the blood stream. Free Serotonin then circulates through the body and encourages nausea and vomiting. There are drugs designed to block this response, and they are generally used in order to suppress vomiting and nausea which are often symptoms of chemotherapy and radiation.

Serotonin and Social Interaction

In many animal species, one's access to food is dependent upon competition. If an animal does not display enough aggression, it may not get as much food to eat. Based upon this inter-relationship between social hierarchy and food availability, Serotonin became involved in social interaction from an evolutionary perspective.

In many animals, Serotonin encourages the animal to engage with its social peers as an alpha. On the other hand, Serotonin impacts the fight-or-flight response dependent upon the social rank of the animal. In aeta-subordinate animals, Serotonin suppresses the urge to flee, whereas in alpha animals, Serotonin encourages flight, based upon a different distribution of Serotonin receptors.

When Serotonin is used by the brain, it is usually absorbed by neurons designed to transport Serotonin. Research has shown that much of the pathology related to anxiety in humans is related to how Serotonin is distributed after it has been absorbed by these transporters.

Serotonin and Aging

There are many ways that Serotonin impacts the aging process, as well as the cognitive capabilities of the brain. In many more primitive animal species, as Serotonin levels rise, it improves certain forms of memory. Serotonin levels falls as the creature ages, which inhibits these processes, but by blocking the re-uptake of Serotonin, it is possible to bolster cognitive memory capability in spite of aging.

In human beings as well as mammals, Serotonin levels do not rise with age in the same way, but they do start to fall as people reach the late stages of the life span, which does impact cognitive capacity.

Serotonin and Bone Mineral Density

Research has shown that in human beings, Serotonin concentrations in the blood stream play a role in controlling and regulating bone mineral density. In rodent subjects, individuals that have their ability to produce Serotonin turned off in the brain but not in the digestive system experience Osteopenia. On the other hand, those that have high levels in the brain, but do not have high levels in the digestive system have elevated bone mineral density.

Human research has not been as in depth, but there is strong evidence that individuals with elevated Serotonin levels in the blood are more likely to experience Osteopenia and Osteoporosis later in life. In the future, regulating Serotonin may be a way to treat patients with health conditions related to bone metabolism.

Serotonin and Human Development

In many animals, Serotonin plays a central role in encouraging normal growth and development into adulthood. Proper Serotonin levels during childhood and adolescence ensure that the body focuses the prime amount of resources into the developing child. If there is not enough food available, or there are other similar situations which can impact health and viability during development, Serotonin levels drop, which causes the child to develop more slowly.

Serotonin also promotes the production of HGH and its related growth factors, especially IGF-1. This is one of the mechanisms which helps encourage growth during puberty, and it also increases healing capacity in the case of injury.

Serotonin and the Cardiovascular System

As we mentioned earlier, Serotonin is released by the digestive system and eventually absorbed by the platelets in the cardiovascular system. When there is damage in the arteries or veins, Serotonin encourages the healing process as it is released from the platelets after they have formed a blood clot. This released Serotonin also emits signals to the immediate area to restrict blood flow, which helps to stem bleeding.

How Does the Human Body Make Serotonin?

There are two mechanisms by which human beings and other mammalian species produce Serotonin, both of which rely on the conversion of Tryptophan into Serotonin. One form of Tryptophan known as TPH1 is converted into Serotonin by the digestive system (the enterochromaffin cells) and the pineal gland, while a second form, TPH2 is converted into Serotonin by circulatory structures attached to the digestive system (the myenteric plexis) and neurons in the brain stem (the raphe nuclei)

In lab mice, TPH1 is shown to be vitally important to heart health, and without the ability to produce TPH1, the subjects have significant issues with heart strength and circulation and have significantly increased mortality.

On the other hand, mice without the ability to produce TPH2 are fine while they are in utero, but they don't grow at the same rate as their peers after birth causing them to be much more likely to die before they have been weaned from the mother. If they survive past five weeks, they end up as healthy as their normal peers, but have significant social issues related to aggression.

How Does Serotonin Deficiency Impact Infant Health?

In the case of human beings, there is some evidence that SIDS may be the result of a malfunction in the way that the infant body processes Serotonin. In animal research, when mice were programmed to produce less Serotonin than normal, it directly led to many issues related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, including cardiovascular insufficiency, which increased infant mortality rates. This is because Serotonin produced by the raphe nuclei play a role in breathing as well as heartbeat.

Serotonin Depletion and Mood Disorders

Serotonin is linked to a variety of disorders associated with mood. Serotonin Deficiency is strongly linked to both Depression and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Interestingly enough, Serotonin Deficiency is also a temporary condition that occurs when someone falls for another, emotionally, and is associated with OCD tendencies that occur in the early parts of many relationships.

Serotonin and Alcohol

Moderate consumption of alcohol leads directly to a state of Serotonin Depletion resulting from a reduction in the concentration of tryptophan in the blood stream. This is one of the reasons that people that drink alcohol are more likely to engage in impulsive activities, including sex, because Serotonin has a modulating effect upon both self-control and libido.

Serotonin and Your Health

As you can see, Serotonin is one of the most physiologically complex hormones produced by the human body, and affects change in a wide variety of ways. Healthy Serotonin balance is a vital part of sustaining health and wellness, both psychological and physical.


Serotonin Wiki:


Serotonin WebMD:



Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 19 August 2014

Melatonin Hormone Guide

What Is Melatonin?

Melatonin is a hormone that is released by the pineal gland which encourages sleep and helps to preserve the natural human circadian rhythm. Melatonin is also produced by animals and many plants.

Human beings are naturally designed to be awake during daylight and to become sleepy once the sun goes down. That is because we are diurnal creatures. Although the average person sleeps eight hours per night, we have just begun to really understand why we sleep, and the processes behind it, in recent years.

Although we have been keenly aware of the connection between light/dark and the sleep cycle, we are only now becoming aware of the mechanisms which promote this cycle, and melatonin is one of the keys to this cycle.

It used to be believed that Mmlatonin was the primary mechanism which controlled the circadian rhythm, but today it is clear that melatonin is a tool that the body uses to change the body's physiological patterns to induce sleep, as controlled by the central nervous system.

How Do Light and Dark Promote Patterns of Wakefulness?

Our brains actually process the presence or absence of light through the eyes in order to send information to the brain regarding the sleep cycle. The eyes absorb light, and this information passes from the eyes to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has a particular region known as the suprachiasmic nucleus which reacts to sunlight and other factors in order to either promote a state of wakefulness or sleepiness by manipulating body temperature, hormone release, and other factors which promote a normal sleep cycle.

Think of the suprachiasmic nucleus as a clock. Under normal circumstances, human beings usually wake up around the same time each day, and the appearance of sunlight plays a central role in establishing that set pattern. For example, when the suprachiasmic nucleus senses sunlight, it responds by promoting the secretion of cortisol and increasing ambient body temperature. In addition to this, the suprachiasmic nucleus also suppresses the release of melatonin, a hormone which encourages the body to go into a sleep state. Once the sun goes down, the body stops suppressing melatonin release, which encourages sleepiness.

Melatonin is often taken as a supplement in order to help promote sleep. This can be effective for many patients, but should only be used for a brief period of time, because long-term use can affect the body's hormone patterns.

Of course, anyone that experiences significant issues with sleep should talk to a professional in order to get the appropriate treatment, but for mild or temporary sleeplessness, melatonin is often a fine option.

Where Does the Body Make Melatonin?

Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland, which is about the size of a bean and is situated in the central portion of the brain. Under normal circumstances, the pineal gland does not produce Melatonin during the day, but as the sun goes down and the suprachiasmic nucleus no longer receives sufficient light signal, this causes the body to start producing Melatonin.

After the pineal gland produces melatonin, it immediately begins to circulate through the blood stream. For people with normal sleeping patterns, this generally happens at about nine o'clock at night. This is why, a couple of hours after the sun falls down, you naturally enter a state of sleepiness, which inhibits your alertness and causes you to seek out a comfortable place to rest.

Once the body starts to release melatonin, it will continue to do so until sunlight, when melatonin levels will drop, encouraging wakefulness, until around nine o'clock in the morning, when the pineal gland completely deactivates and melatonin production halts. During the day, the body produces almost no melatonin.

Of course, time is not the only factor with regard to melatonin, light is also important. If it is the appropriate time, but the body still senses bright light associated with daytime, then the pineal gland will be activated but will not produce melatonin. In many cases, light produced indoors, especially white light with a lot of blue waves, will be interpreted by the brain as sunlight. This is why it's important to turn off computers and televisions about an hour before bed in order to promote a healthy sleep cycle.

Melatonin is processed by the liver, and is filtered quickly. Ninety percent of Melatonin is processed by the liver the first time it passes through the organ.

How Much Melatonin Does the Body Release at Night?

Dependent on a wide variety of factors, different people produce different levels of melatonin. There does appear to be a strong correlation between age and melatonin production, where children produce the greatest concentrations of melatonin, and older adults produce less over time. This is both why children tend to sleep longer and deeper, and why adults tend to sleep for shorter periods of time. Older adults that have issues sleeping produce less melatonin than their peers on average.

How Much Melatonin Should I Take To Sleep?

Melatonin is a common supplement, and is actually the only hormone in America that can be obtained without a prescription. Because melatonin is present in many animal and plant-based foods, it is considered a nutrient, rather than a hormone, and is not regulated under the same rules as pharmaceutical drugs and other Bio-Identical Hormones. Supplements do not require FDA-Approval, and are not subject to regulations which are as strict as those intended for medications.

For this reason, it is important to source melatonin responsibly. An issue with many over-the-counter melatonin products is that they often provide much more melatonin than the body naturally has the capability to producein some cases twenty times more than the pineal gland secretes to promote sleep!

A few noted side-effects of melatonin supplementation are depression, fatigue, and vivid dreaming.

There has been quite a bit of animal research conducted with regard to melatonin, and there is evidence that melatonin affects blood pressure, and long-term or heavy use can potentially affect fertility. Because of the potential impact of melatonin upon blood pressure, those that are at high risk of cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, or hypertension should always talk to their doctor before using melatonin. Melatonin may also exacerbate sleep apnea.

The best way to use melatonin is to use it to establish a healthy and natural circadian rhythm. This means that it should be taken an hour or so before you are ready to go to bed, so that you can get comfortable and fall naturally to sleep. Also, it is important to take a physiologically natural dose of melatonin in order to prevent side-effects and help your body stay in a normal rhythm.

It is important to note that our knowledge of melatonin (as is true with many other hormones), is incomplete, and more potential treatments or more effective usage protocols may be adopted in the future.

Is Melatonin Dangerous?

Although there are potential concerns regarding melatonin's effect upon mood and cardiovascular health, there has never been a case of melatonin overdose, and there is no evidence that Melatonin overdose produces any toxic effects.

Melatonin Research

Many people have taken melatonin and report that it does indeed help them sleep. It is unclear if melatonin is better than placebo at inducing sleep however. Some studies have shown that Melatonin is no more effective than sugar pill, but there is evidence that melatonin produces other benefits.

For example, melatonin does have the ability to help patients realign their circadian rhythm to a normal schedule. Continuing study needs to be performed, however, to compare the benefits of melatonin to sunlight exposure in promoting healthy sleep patterns. Even so, Melatonin can be very useful for individuals that are exposed to bright light, such as the light of a computer screen, after sundown.

Melatonin has been shown to be highly effective at restoring sleep patterns and promoting sleep both for individuals that work odd hours, and for people suffering from jet lag.

Melatonin does not seem to have an impact on average length of sleep, but it does appear to help patients sleep more soundly, and fall asleep more quickly. Patients that have trouble getting themselves in bed at night may find melatonin very effective. The jury is still out, however, as there are some studies that show otherwise.

The biggest benefit of Melatonin is that it can alter an individuals circadian rhythm, helping them to reset the clock when their bodies are out of sync with their lives. Supplemental melatonin provides this benefit for around six hours.

Individuals should not take Melatonin in the hours just after they have woken up, because it can lead to fatigue and cognitive disruption when taken during a period when the body has just had a large amount of sleep.

Melatonin for Insomnia

The body of research regarding Melatonin and Insomnia is small, and there have been mixed results. In one particular study of men and women over the age of fifty, melatonin appeared to improve both sleep quality and the time that it took to fall asleep. Other studies have shared the result of improved sleep onset, but melatonin did not help insomnia patients maintain energy levels in the daytime, and did not help patients stay asleep through the entire night.

Before more conclusive evidence can be drawn, more elaborate research will need to be performed in order to assess the effectiveness of melatonin as an insomnia treatment. Also, there are no set guidelines for how much melatonin to take to treat various conditions.

Melatonin and Jet Lag

Jet lag is a condition that occurs when an individual changes time zones rapidly, causing their normal sleep schedule, as governed by day-night cycles, to be disrupted. The more time zones that an individual travels, the more time that it will take to recover. As a result, people feel fatigued when they would normally be rested, and they also become hungry at off-times.

There are a number of things that can make jet lag worse. For example, many people don't sleep well on planes. Also, caffeine and alcohol can further alter sleep cycle. The circadian rhythm is important, and when individuals with set rhythms become disrupted, it can completely change their ability to go about their day.

A recent survey of people that regularly travel on business showed that around 50% of these individuals routinely have jet lag as a result of long-distance flights. As a result of this jet lag, they claimed that their productivity and performance were directly impacted. For reasons that are unclear, women were more affected by jet lag than their male peers.

Perhaps because melatonin is available as a cheap over-the-counter supplement, there has not been extensive study regarding its benefits with regard to jet lag. However, studies conducted thus far have shown that melatonin is highly effective at mitigating or completely preventing jet lag. Traveling forward in time or traveling 5+ time zones in a trip were correlated with the greatest degree of benefit.

Melatonin and Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome

There are other conditions which impact circadian rhythm as well. For example, Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome is a condition in which patients have major issues falling asleep at normal times, sometimes unable to sleep before sunrise.

This condition affects people of all ages, but is most common among teens. Research shows that melatonin can be an effective method to treat this condition and promote healthy sleep, but for many patients, simply exposing oneself to bright light when one wishes to be awake is equally beneficial.

Melatonin and Libido

In animals, melatonin plays a role in sex drive. Melatonin has the ability to suppress both Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone, which are important for the maintenance of libido as well as the production of sperm. The way that a species responds to melatonin depends on whether they are sexually active during the day or at night.

Animals that mate at night breed better while melatonin levels are high and daytime breeders mate most effectively when melatonin levels are low. Taking melatonin can negatively affect fertility in some individuals, but there is also evidence that it can promote fertility and libido in others. More research needs to be done to more accurately show how melatonin affects human fertility and libido.

Melatonin and Leptin

Leptin is one of the hormones that controls our hunger. High levels of Leptin produce the sensation of satiety. Leptin levels are affected by melatonin in a complex way. Melatonin interacts with Leptin and Insulin, helping to reduce hunger during sleep. If Melatonin and Leptin interact outside of the presence of Insulin, this causes Leptin levels to decline, however.

Melatonin and the Immune System

In addition to sleep, sex drive, and hunger, melatonin also has an impact on the function of the immune system. The research is limited in this regard, but melatonin does seem to have antiinflammatory properties. Researchers are attempting to discover if melatonin can be used as a way to mitigate inflammation. It is believed that Melatonin promotes the synthesis of cytokines which limit inflammation. In the near future, melatonin may be an important part of fighting both viruses and bacterial infections, and it also may benefit many people with cancer.

Melatonin and Dreaming

In some cases, people that take melatonin supplements report intense dreams. Studies have shown that a 50 milligram dose of Melatonin appears to increase the number of dreams because it lengthens the period of time that an individual spends in REM-Sleep, the period where dreams are most common.

Melatonin and Autism

Melatonin is useful for patients with Aspergers and Autism, because it helps them sleep longer and deeper.

Melatonin and Aging

There is some evidence that suggests that melatonin may be a useful anti-aging tool. It has long been known that children produce higher levels of melatonin later in the night, and older individuals reach peak melatonin much earlier. It is hypothesized that this is one of the reasons why younger and older individuals often have such different sleeping habits. It is also hypothesized that this is why adults don't sleep as long, and why they are more prone to sleep dysfunction.

Animal research studies have also shown that exposure to exogenous melatonin changes the expression of thirteen separate genes in geriatric mice, reverting their expression to those associated with youth. The antioxidant properties in melatonin also may have a neuroprotective effect, which promotes neurological health deeper in to the lifespan, while also reducing inflammation. Both of these aspects have a significant impact on longevity.

Melatonin and Diabetes

Diabetes and Melatonin Levels appear to be correlated. Individuals that produce less melatonin than their peers appear to be more likely to develop Type-Two Diabetes. This could be because people that produce enough melatonin have greater issues controlling insulin, and also because less melatonin means that the body doesn't rest as well, which has a tremendous impact on hormone health.

Melatonin and ADHD Treatment

Research has shown that patients taking medications such as Adderall for ADHD find it easier to sleep at night if they take melatonin before bed. Preliminary studies have shown that this benefit of melatonin does not decrease over the course of three months of treatment.


Is There a Connection Between Melatonin and Fertility?


Melatonin and Sleep


Wikipedia: Melatonin



Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 19 August 2014

Andropause FAQ

What is Andropause?

Andropause is a medical state that is a natural result of aging, in which symptoms of aging manifest resulting from a decline in Testosterone Production and other male hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone, also referred to as DHEA.

Andropause is a universal factor of the male condition, although each male will physiologically react to the condition in their own way, and some men will display symptoms much earlier than others.

How Fast do Testosterone Levels Decline Over Time?

From the age of puberty to around the late twenties, males are flush with Testosterone, which contributes to optimal health and wellness. Around the late twenties or early thirties, however, these levels start to drop, at a rate of around 1%-2% per year. This decline is slow and without symptoms at first, but as the decline becomes more severe, the changes start to become apparent.

How Can I Qualify for Andropause Treatment?

In order to be prescribed Testosterone Treatment for Andropause, or other effective treatments, you must undergo clinical evaluation. Many men have Low Testosterone without displaying symptoms. In order to qualify for Low-T treatment, you must not only have clinically low levels of Testosterone, but you must also display symptoms of the condition.

There are many conditions which may prevent you from qualifying for treatment, including prostate cancer and severe sleep apnea.

What Blood Tests Are Necessary In Order to Diagnose Andropause?

Although your doctor may order a variety of tests in order to fully assess your overall health and hormone balance, for Age-Related Low-T, the most important test is the Free Testosterone Test. Free Testosterone is also referred to as Bioavailable Testosterone, and refers to the amount of Testosterone that is available for use by the body, and not currently being used.

With a saliva or blood sample, it is possible to take a snapshot of your current Free Testosterone Levels.

What is Total Testosterone?

Total Testosterone refers to all Testosterone that is circulating through your blood stream. This includes both Free (Bioavailable) Testosterone and bound Testosterone.

Why Is the Total Testosterone Test Insufficient for the Diagnosis of Andropause?

The vast majority of patients with Symptomatic Andropause have clinically normal Total Testosterone Levels, meaning that if Total Testosterone alone is evaluated, most patients with Andropause will appear to have normal Testosterone Levels, because the wrong factor is being measured. Recent research has shown that among men with Andropause, only 13% show depressed Total Testosterone Levels, whereas nearly three out of four of those patients had Low Free Testosterone Levels.

Because many physicians only measure Total Testosterone when evaluating Andropause, symptoms of Testosterone Deficiency are often diagnosed mistakenly as resultant from chronic fatigue, stress, depression, and other factors. Many of the treatments for these conditions actually have a depressant effect upon Testosterone, which could actually exacerbate symptoms in the long run.

By Fifty, What Percentage of Men Have Abnormally Low Free Testosterone Levels?

Among men over fifty, it is approximated that roughly half of men have Free Testosterone Concentrations that would be considered clinically low for men between the ages of thirty and forty.

What Are Other Names for Andropause?

Andropause is often referred to by a number of different names. For the sake of simplicity, it is often referred to in the media as Low-T, although Low-T is a broader term which simply refers to any physiological state in which Testosterone Levels are inadequate to meet the needs of the body. Another informal term for Andropause is Manopause, used to further emphasis the physiological connection between Menopause and Andropause.

Andropause is also sometimes referred to as Age-Related Testosterone Deficiency, which is a more adequate representation of the condition, because Andropause is an age-dependent chronic condition. Other similar names include Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males, Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male, and Symptomatic Late Onset Hypogonadism.

Because Andropause has not been fully accepted as a medical condition by the World Health Organization or the Food and Drug Administration, there is not a codified set of terms related to the condition, although there is a large amount of on-going study, and the condition is widely recognized by medical professionals and medical research institutes both nation- and worldwide.

What Causes Andropause?

Andropause is caused by a combination of hereditary factors and lifestyle choices, also known as Internal and External Causes. Internal causes are genetic.

Before Andropause occurs, the body enters a state of Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. During this period, the body produces less Testosterone than is produced by younger, healthier men. Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is a state in which the brain does not respond adequately to signals that Testosterone Levels are insufficient to promote the optimal health of the human body. Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism generally takes place around the age of forty.

Testosterone production will continue to decline over time, eventually to a point at which the pituitary and the hypothalamus respond by producing elevated concentrations of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone in an effort to rebound declining Testosterone. This is effective for a brief period of time, but the body eventually reverts to a state of decline once again.

This is the period at which Andropause takes place. Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism refers to the early state at which GnRH and LH Levels are low in combination with Testosterone. Andropause refers to the period at which Testosterone Production remains inhibited in spite of increased LH and GnRH levels.

This hormonal change is absolutely normal, in that it is a natural progression of male hormone balance, which bears some similarities to menopause, hence the name. One significant way that Andropause and Menopause differ is that there is more variation as to when men begin to experience their change. Women will reach menopause at some point between the early 40s and late 50s, whereas some men will begin to experience symptoms before or even after that period.

What Are Lifestyle Factors Which Encourage Symptoms of Andropause?

Although the human body has a baseline of Testosterone Production dependent on age and genetics, this production can be affected by lifestyle choices which further suppress Testosterone Levels in the body. The following are some factors which can inhibit the body's natural ability to release Testosterone:

  • Inadequate Sleep

  • Poor Diet

  • Sedentary Lifestyle

  • Medications

  • Overindulgence of Alcohol

  • Stress

  • Illness

What Are the Symptoms of Andropause?

Andropause is a complex condition which affects male health in a wide variety of ways. The following are some symptoms associated with Age-Related Testosterone Deficiency:

  • Insomnia

  • Head and Back Aches

  • Reduced Sex Drive

  • Depression

  • Mood Instability

  • Hot Flashes

  • Hypersensitivity

  • Irritability

  • Social Withdrawal

  • Anger

  • Unhealthy Changes in Body Composition

  • Fatigue

  • Loss of Bone Mineral Density

What Are Some Effective Andropause Treatments Available?

Men with Andropause can benefit significantly from Hormone Replacement Therapy. There are a number of options available to Andropause patients, including:

  • Testosterone Patches

  • Testosterone Creams

  • Testosterone Gels

  • Injectable Testosterone (Testosterone Enanthate, Testosterone Cypionate, etc.)

  • Testosterone Pellet Therapy

  • Clomiphene Citrate

What is the Difference Between Andropause and Primary Testosterone Deficiency?

Most men suffering from symptoms related to Andropause have perfectly functioning testes, but do not receive sufficient signaling from the hypothalamus to produce enough Testosterone to meet the needs of the body.

Andropause is a form of secondary hypogonadism related to age. The older that men get, the less efficient that their bodies are at producing Testosterone. Primary Testosterone Deficiency is Low-T that is the result of a direct malfunction of the testes which prevents the body from being able to produce Testosterone at normal levels.

Both of these forms of Testosterone Deficiency can be treated with Bioidentical Testosterone Therapy, but there are more off-label options available to patients that suffer from Andropause and other forms of Secondary Hypogonadism, such as Clomiphene Citrate.

Testosterone production is actually the result of a cascade of signals that begins at the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus releases a hormone known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which circulates to the pituitary, stimulating the production of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone, which both contribute heavily to the healthy function of the male reproductive system. Luteinizing Hormone stimulates the production of Testosterone and other male sex hormones, while Follicle-Stimulating Hormone promotes the healthy production of sperm.

What Are Some Health Risks Associated with Andropause?

Andropause is correlated with a number of health conditions which can severely impact health and wellness, including:

  • Diabetes

  • Hypertension

  • Obesity

  • Chronic Fatigue

  • Heart Attack

  • Stroke

There is even evidence that Andropause leads to an increased risk of Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.

What is the Goal of Andropause Treatment?

The ultimate goal of Andropause Treatment is not to flood the body with Testosterone, but simply to restore Testosterone Levels in the body to normal, physiological levels. In general, Testosterone Replacement Therapy Treatments aim to restore Testosterone Concentrations to what would be considered mid-normal for a man in his twenties.

In restoring Testosterone Levels to these physiologically normal levels, it is possible to significantly mitigate the symptoms of Andropause, helping men live healthier lives.

What Are the Benefits of Andropause Treatment?

  • Higher Quality of Life

  • Fewer Mood Swings

  • Reduced Irritability and Anxiety

  • Preserved Bone Mineral Density

  • More Energy

  • Enhanced Muscle Health

  • Increased Metabolism

  • Improved Capacity to Burn Fat

  • Increased Libido

There is preliminary evidence that shows that Testosterone Treatment also improves cardiovascular health, but more research is needed.

Does Andropause Treatment Cause Cancer?

There is no evidence that Testosterone Therapy for Andropause causes cancer, but the treatment can exacerbate existing forms of cancer, including breast and prostate cancer, and should not be prescribed to individuals that have or are at high risk of these or other forms of cancer.

How Can I Treat Infertility Related to Andropause?

Unfortunately, Testosterone alone is not capable of restoring fertility. This is because Bioidentical Testosterone actually suppresses the ability of the testes to produce Testosterone and sperm for the duration of therapy. This is temporary, and testosterone production will return after therapy has been suspended, but for patients interested in having children, Testosterone Treatment alone will not be sufficient.

Testosterone can, however, be combined with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) in order to simultaneously increase Testosterone Concentrations in the body while simultaneously preserving fertility and the normal function of the Testes. In the male body, HCG acts as a functional analogue of Luteinizing Hormone, both preserving the body's ability to make some of its own Testosterone while also preserving the fertility of the patient.

Clomiphene citrate (brand name: Clomid) is sometimes prescribed to men with Testosterone Deficiency/Andropause that are interested in Testosterone Restoration which also preserves fertility. Clomiphene increases Testosterone and Sperm Production by inhibiting negative feedback mechanisms which can limit the healthy production of Testosterone.

Is It Possible to Use Erectile Dysfunction Medications During Andropause Treatment?

Yes, but you may not have to in the long run. Andropause is one of the main causes of Erectile Dysfunction as men grow older, and many men with Age-Related Testosterone Deficiency report that as a result of Testosterone Replacement Therapy, they no longer rely as heavily on Erectile Dysfunction Medications. Many patients even report that they no longer need to use such medications.

There is research that shows that taking Erectile Dysfunction medications with Testosterone Therapy has the ability to resolve ED issues in 95% of patients.

What Are the Potential Side-Effects of Testosterone Therapy for Andropause?

As with any form of medical treatment, there are risks associated with Testosterone Restoration. The following are some of the risks associated with Andropause Treatment:

  • Oily Skin, increased prevalence of acne

  • Male-Pattern Baldness

  • Headaches

  • Prolonged/Frequent Erections

  • Gynecomastia (increased breast tissue can be treated with estrogen-blockers such as Arimadex)

  • Increased Red Blood Cell Count (can be treated via blood donation)

  • Accidental long term overdose can lead to Heart Disease

All patients that take Testosterone will experience the following symptoms resulting from therapy:

  • Reduced Fertility

  • Testicular Shrinkage

These symptoms are temporary, and will slowly return to a normal state after treatment has ended. Combining Testosterone with HCG can prevent these symptoms, as can Low-T Treatment with clomiphene citrate.

How Can I Mitigate the Effects of Andropause Through Lifestyle?

What Should I Avoid the Onset of Andropause Symptoms?

Stop Smoking and Using Tobacco Andropause has a negative impact on cardiovascular health, and smoking only exacerbates the risk of cardiovascular complications. Also, smoking reduces normal erectile function because nicotine encourages vasoconstriction, which reduces the ability of the body to rush blood flow to the potential erection.

Don't Abuse Alcohol Alcohol promotes the body's production of estrogen, which depresses testosterone production. Also, alcohol reduces zinc levels in the body, which reduces the ability of the body to adequately control estrogen production.

What Should I Do to Delay the Onset and Severity of Andropause Symptoms?

Lose Weight Adipose body fat has the natural ability to promote elevated estrogen levels which suppress testosterone production in men. By losing weight, it is possible to promote a healthier testosterone balance.

Eat Healthier Your body also needs a well-rounded diet rich in nutrients in order to promote optimal hormone balance and mitigate the effects of Andropause. Although the body needs some fat, diets that are high in fat will expose the body to more estrogen. Also, organic foods can help improve Testosterone levels, because many common pesticides have estrogenic qualities. Finally, a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower and broccoli promotes healthy testosterone balance as a result of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds such as indole-3-carbinol.

Make a Concerted Effort to Improve Sleeping Habits The body produces Testosterone primarily at night. By taking the steps to make sure that you get all the sleep your body needs, you protect your body's natural ability to produce Testosterone.

Take Zinc Supplements Zinc is a very important nutrient which promotes the body's ability to produce its own Testosterone while also inhibiting the body's ability to produce estrogen and other aromatase compounds which suppress Testosterone production.

Manage Stress More Effectively In order to promote healthy Testosterone Production, it is important to control one's stress. Stress increases the production of cortisol, which is another cholesterol-based hormone. The body has a limited amount of these resources, and if you have too much stress, your body will divert resources from Testosterone production to Cortisol production.

What is the Average Dosage for Testosterone Restoration for Andropause?

When men are in their twenties, they generally produce between four and seven milligrams of Testosterone. Because not all Testosterone is absorbed during topical Testosterone Therapy, the initial dosage is generally between ten and twenty milligrams each day in order to bring Free Testosterone Production back to normal.

Because of potential issues related to elevated Testosterone Levels, it is prudent to start with a small dose in order to provide benefits with the lowest risk of side effects. Generally, patients will stay on this starter dose for around three or four months, then come back for further evaluation. Their dose will remain the same or be adjusted based on further testing as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment.


Andropause: The Male Menopause


Frequently Asked Questions about Andropause (Male Menopause) and Testosterone Replacement Therapy


Wikipedia: Andropause



Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 19 August 2014

Ghrelin Hormone Guide

What is Ghrelin?

Ghrelin is the primary hormone in the human body which regulates the sensation of hunger. It is considered a partner to a hormone known as Leptin, which controls satiation. Whereas Leptin is produced primarily by adipose fat tissue, Ghrelin is released by special cells throughout the digestive system. After Ghrelin is released, the hormone circulates through the body and activates at sites throughout the nervous system, in particular, the hypothalamus.

Like Leptin, in addition to impacting hunger signals, Ghrelin also has a role in metabolism and the usage and storage of energy.

When is Ghrelin Released?

Ghrelin is produced by the stomach when the stomach is empty, and the release of the hormone is suppressed when the stomach is stretched. The primary influence of Ghrelin is upon the hypothalamus, where it triggers the sensation of hunger and encourages the stomach to release acid in preparation of its next meal. It also readies the entire digestive system to process and move food through the system.

Leptin and Ghrelin both trigger activity upon the same receptors in the hypothalamus, although Ghrelin encourages hunger and Leptin suppresses it.

Ghrelin also alters the sensitivity of a certain pleasure center of the brain known as the ventral tegmental area, an area which plays a major role in both addiction and sexual libido. In particular, Ghrelin has a powerful influence on both acetylcholine and dopamine production.

Ghrelin is just one of many hormones that help human beings (and other animals) establish a routine pattern of energy distribution. It encourages the body to intake calories which will be converted into energy by stimulating hunger, and also alters the way that the body uses energy, in terms of immediate heat generation, adipose fat storage, and the process of the ATP cycle.

Ghrelin and Leptin Ideally Create Metabolic Homeostasis

When Ghrelin and Leptin are interacting as they should, it helps to promote an ideal physiological state, but when these hormones get out of their natural rhythms, it can lead to increased body weight and reduced metabolism, as well as powerful sensations of hunger which encourage eating junk food and other foods dense in calories.

Leptin controls the way that the body responds to food via signals from body fat, while Ghrelin controls the way that the body responds to food from the stomach itself. There are a number of pathways through which Ghrelin achieves this, some of which are not fully understood at this time. There are also synthetic molecules which imitate the function of Ghrelin which have the ability to both promote weight gain and increase appetite by activating receptor sites on the arcuate nucleus.

Insulin, Leptin, and Ghrelin

The ability of Ghrelin receptors to accept stimulation is affected both by the influence of insulin and Leptin. Also, Ghrelin encourages eating full meals because it suppresses the body's ability to feel the stomach stretch until toward the end of the meal when Ghrelin levels decline.

In addition to directly controlling hunger, Ghrelin also promotes the release of pleasure hormones which encourage an individual to regularly eat, but can also promote overeating as well as addiction if a patient lacks willpower and self-control. In fact, alcohol dependency requires Ghrelin to activate receptors on the hypothalamus, and this is also one of the influences which encourage people to prefer certain foods over others.

Ghrelin and Eating Habits

Ghrelin is a powerful hormonal force which controls both feeding and appetite in animals, including humans. Ghrelin levels drop after we eat a meal, and slowly rise over time, increasing our hunger and desire to eat. Ghrelin peaks immediately before eating and drops to its lowest levels after the meal has concluded.

Ghrelin Injections, and the injection of Synthetic Ghrelin Analogues, have the ability to increase hunger and appetite dependent upon the dose of the hormone that is administered. This means that the more Ghrelin that is administered, the more calories that a patient will consume over time. This does not make individuals eat more at every meal, however. It makes them become hungry again much more quickly than they normally would, so they eat more meals each day.

In animal species, the administration of Ghrelin causes the animal to search for food more aggressively, and increases the prevalence of any activities related to meal habits, including hoarding, foraging, or sniffing out food.

Ghrelin and Metabolism

Body mass is controlled through metabolism. At its simplest, this simply means that weight is controlled by adjusting how calories are taken in and how calories are burned from day to day. The more Ghrelin that an animal produces, the more they will weigh, as a general rule. Based on this information, it is believed that Ghrelin acts as an intermediary between adipose fat deposits and the brain.

Ghrelin is dependent upon the weight of the individual. The less than a person weights, the more Ghrelin that their body will produce, while on the other hand, the more that a person weighs, the less Ghrelin that they will produce. This may be one reason why many people that are overweight don't eat as often as their peers, but eat larger meals as a result of their lack of self control.

Under normal circumstances, Ghrelin works in the body as a means to keep weight at an average healthy level, mediating the body's use of energy and its mass.

Ghrelin and the Digestive System

Ghrelin acts as an anti-inflammatory in the digestive system and prevents cells from spontaneously dying during times of internal stress and inflammation. Ghrelin generally promotes the activity of other anti-inflammatory hormones and compounds while limiting the activity of those that cause inflammation. For this reason, researchers hypothesize that medically administered Ghrelin may one day be useful in promoting gastrointestinal health during these times of stress. Ghrelin also appears to help the interior of the digestive system rehabilitate itself after damage and injury.

In the case of pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancers, elevated Ghrelin levels can exacerbate the illness.

Ghrelin and the Pancreas

Ghrelin and insulin are related hormones, and the presence of one impacts the activity of the other. There are Ghrelin receptors on the pancreas, and when Ghrelin activates these points, it slows down the release of insulin in response to the presence of glucose. This means that Ghrelin slows down the rate at which the body processes sugar as it circulates through the body.

Ghrelin and Heart Health

Ghrelin is beneficial to heart health because it inhibits the formation of fatty deposits in the arteries, and it also encourages the healthy function of the endothelium, the inner lining of the blood vessels.

Ghrelin, Memory, and Learning

The hippocampus is the center for learning in the brain. Ghrelin plays a role in all of this, and also encourages the production of Human Growth Hormone. Ghrelin circulates through the blood stream and passes through the blood-brain barrier at the hippocampus, and encourages the development of new connections in the brain

There is some evidence that the brain is able to retain information at the highest levels when Ghrelin levels are higher, which means that when people are full, they may have slightly more trouble learning than when they are hungry. From an evolutionary perspective, it does seem beneficial to have additional horsepower in the brain when the body requires food, and for the mind to slow down after a meal has been found and consumed. This process is apparent in animal studies, and it is hypothesized that in humans this same mechanism is at play, at least to a certain extent.

Ghrelin and Depression

Animal research has shown that Ghrelin promotes a healthier psychological profile and inhibits depression. Lab mice which don't produce Ghrelin experience greater levels of anxiety when they are exposed to both physical and psychological stress. Under normal circumstances, Ghrelin has the ability to interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in a way that reduces the effects of stress.

Also, animal studies have shown that Ghrelin acts like an anti-depressant in laboratory mice, as rodents with elevated levels of the hormone showed fewer signs of stress than their peers without Ghrelin. Furthermore, rodents that were unable to produce Ghrelin were less likely to interact with other rats around them.

When these lab rodents were provided an anti-depressant, it counteracted the social inhibition experienced resulting from a lack of Ghrelin, which suggests that Ghrelin helps ward off depression by some underlying mechanism.

Ghrelin and Sleep

Elevated Ghrelin Levels are associated with shorter periods of rest, and this is also associated with being overweight. The more Ghrelin that is present in the blood stream, the less sleep that an individual will experience. Also, those that sleep well through the night are less likely to experience obesity, and their Ghrelin levels tend to be lower.

Ghrelin and Fear Response

Humans and animals have a tendency to experience latent fear as a result of past experiences of stress. Ghrelin plays a role in this, as the body releases Ghrelin in response to such fear, which makes the source of the fear easier to retain. Stress affects Ghrelin concentrations even when the body is not producing adrenal hormones such as cortisol. When Ghrelin stimulation is inhibited, this suppresses the brain's tendency to learn what to fear more effectively under stress, although it does not affect adrenal response to stress.

In the future, there will likely be medications that use synthetic Ghrelin or Ghrelin analogues as a means to limit the effects of mental disorders caused by stress.

Ghrelin and Dopamine

Dopamine is the primary pleasure hormone that is produced by the body. Ghrelin increases the level of dopamine that is present in the substantia nigra, which is the reward center of the brain. Upon eating or engaging in any other pleasurable activity, this enhances the sensation of pleasure.

Ghrelin and Reproductive Health

Ghrelin inhibits the release of precursor hormones which produce sex hormones and sperm, whereas Leptin encourages the production of these hormones. It is unclear to what extent that this may limit fertility. From an evolutionary standpoint, it makes sense that during times of hunger, reproduction would be a secondary concern, whereas during periods of satiation and abundance, sex drive and function would increase.

Prenatal Health and Ghrelin Production

During the fetal stage, the developing lungs produce Ghrelin in order to accelerate the growth of the organ. Also, there is a connection between the concentration of Ghrelin in the umbilical cord and the weight of the child at birth.

Ghrelin, Obesity, and Anorexia

As we mentioned earlier, individuals that are overweight or obese do not produce as much Ghrelin as their thinner counterparts. For this reason, it does not seem that Ghrelin is a contributor to weight gain, although its high or low levels can affect other aspects of physiological health. The exception to this is patients that suffer from Prader-Willi syndrome. Among these patients, Ghrelin levels do promote obesity.

Individuals that suffer from anorexia have exceptionally high blood-concentrations of Ghrelin. The issue is that their bodies override these normal physiological cues to eat. Clinical research has shown that by introducing exogenous Ghrelin intravenously, it is possible to increase calorie intake among patients with anorexia by as much as 36%.

Under normal, healthy circumstances, Ghrelin levels are low around bedtime and increase slowly through the course of the night. Overweight and obese individuals are more likely to experience elevated Ghrelin levels at inappropriate times, which is evidence toward the hypothesis that obesity is a condition that is exacerbated by an incorrect circadian rhythm.

Being in front of a computer screen or other source of abundant light during the late evening can interrupt the natural rise and fall or Ghrelin levels at night. Also, individuals that don't get enough sleep at night produce more Ghrelin, because sleep naturally has a depressant effect upon the hormone. Poor sleeping habits promote the suppression of leptin and the release of Ghrelin, which promotes overeating.

Potential Medical Uses of Ghrelin in the Future

  • Ghrelin may also prove to be an effective means to promote the normal muscle activity of the stomach in individuals suffering from gastroparesis.

  • In animal research, Ghrelin has proven effective at reducing the number and severity of seizures that afflicted animals experience. This may cross over into humans.

  • Ghrelin will soon be used as a treatment for many forms of wasting disease, and may assist patients being treated for kidney failure.

Ghrelin and Appetite: A Research Study

New research shows that elevated levels of Ghrelin promote poor dietary choices, which is why many people may be more prone to eating unhealthy foods packed with calories like cookies and cake.

Simply having elevated Ghrelin in circulation is as powerful of an influence on diet as the act of fasting, both of which encourage desire for calorie-dense foods. Ghrelin reaches very high levels during the act of fasting, but the administration of synthetic Ghrelin can mimic the physiological and psychological desires associated with such a fast, even if the patient does not engage in the activity.

This is because of the way that Ghrelin interacts with the reward centers of the brain. In this study, it was found that synthetic Ghrelin significantly increased the activity in the area of the brain which activates in response to pleasure.

The main researcher in this study, Dr. Goldstone, was interested in seeing how the administration of Ghrelin via injection compared to the act of fasting in relationship to dietary choice.

His study involved eighteen patients, all around the age of 23, all of which were of average weight. They were required to fast the night before and come in without breakfast, and they visited the medical location on three occasions, all of which were at least seven days between.

Each visit, patients either stayed on the fast or ate a meal of 730 calories. After they were fed or required to remain on their fast, they were administered with an injection of either Ghrelin or saline. In order to ensure that the patients' bodies reacted to the Ghrelin injection, they were tested for elevated HGH levels, which rise at the same time that Ghrelin Levels rise in the blood stream.

Ghrelin Research Procedures

Rather than eating after the injection, the subjects were shown various images of foods, sixty of which were low calorie foods, and sixty of which were foods with high calories. Interspersed among these pictures were photos of things seen around the house, to act as a control. During this rating process, their brains were scanned in an MRI machine, meaning that the patient could both provide a qualitative response while the researchers also measured the neurological response to the food stimulus.

How Does Ghrelin Affect Desire for Food?

What researchers discovered was that Ghrelin had no effect on the participants' interest in foods with low calories, while it did increase the desire for foods with a lot of calories. In particular, Ghrelin increased the desire for sweets the most.

One particular area of the brain that was closely monitored during these tests was the anterior orbital frontal cortex, which is the location of the brain that stores the desire that the brain has for particular foods. He found that satiated individuals that received saline did not experience high levels of activation in this area, whereas those that received Ghrelin still experienced activity in this area even when the patient was fed prior to the imaging session.

Does Ghrelin Contribute to Obesity?

Ghrelin may not directly cause obesity, but it does prevent the body from changing its pattern of nutrition intake. Ghrelin levels remain low as long as the obese patient stays at his or her stable weight, but as soon as he or she tries to lose the weight, Ghrelin levels increase dramatically. It is believed that one day, there will be treatments available which block the body's production of Ghrelin during dieting in order to promote weight loss and treat obesity.


Hormone Ghrelin Ups Desire for High Calorie Foods


Wikipedia: Ghrelin


Your Hunger Hormones: How They Affect Your Appetite and Your Weight



Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 19 August 2014

Leptin Hormone Guide

What is Leptin?

Leptin is a hormone that has many purposes, but primarily it is responsible for the full sensation that we get after the body decides that we've had enough to eat. It is frequently referred to as the “satiety hormone.” Leptin is released by fat cells in an effort to control the way that our body stores fat. In addition to suppressing hunger, leptin also alters the way that our body uses energy.

The fat cells release leptin when they have stored a certain level of fat converted from the calories from the food that we eat. When leptin is released, it enters the blood stream and passes through the body. Leptin travels through the cardiovascular system to the hypothalamus, where it activates special receptors in the arcuate nucleus.

When leptin receptors are activated, it causes the body to increase metabolism, while also reducing signals for hunger. Although this is primarily affected through the brain, there are targets throughout the body which are also responsible for increasing metabolism.

The two hormones, Leptin and Ghrelin, have opposite, component effects upon the body. Whereas leptin controls the feeling of satiation, Ghrelin controls the sensation of hunger. Leptin and Ghrelin receptors are actually located on the same cells, and are two vital hormones responsible for the way that our body both stores and expends energy.

Leptin has a number of different purposes in the body, but the most important of these is considered the regulation of the way that the body stores fat. Our knowledge of how Leptin works is far from complete, but leptin is produced not only by fat cells, but by other organs as well.

Where is Leptin Produced?

The majority of leptin is secreted by white adipose fat tissue by organelles known as adipocytes. Leptin is also secreted from other locations, including the liver, pituitary, bone marrow, epithelial cells, stomach, skeletal muscle, ovaries, placenta, and brown adipose fat tissue.

What Causes Leptin Levels to Fluctuate?

Like other hormones such as Testosterone, Leptin flows through the blood stream both locked into a carrier protein and freely. Because body fat produces leptin, the more body fat that a person carries, the more leptin that they will produce. Perhaps surprisingly, the amount of leptin produced by body fat increases exponentially with the volume of body fat that a person carries.

Leptin concentrations also follow the circadian rhythm under normal circumstances. From around 12am to some point in the early morning, leptin levels remain quite high, which is believed to prevent hunger and promote sleep. Although this is the normal pattern of leptin release and circulation, if a person eats at odd times, such as in the middle of the night, this alters the rhythm of leptin release.

There are many ways that Leptin production is unrelated to body fat as well:

  • Fasting for one to three days leads to a drop in Leptin production, even if body fat remains the same. Related to this, Leptin levels also drop as a response to starvation, encouraging hunger even when the body still has a large amount of body fat. This is actually one reason why crash diets don't work effectively. Starving yourself will eventually cause you to lose weight, but once you lose the weight, your body will not be able to effectively send signals for satiation, causing you to eat more than your body needs and experience hunger even though you are eating a healthy diet.

  • Psychological stress increases Leptin Production.

  • Leptin is affected significantly by sex hormone concentrations in the body. Testosterone is associated with reduced leptin, whereas estrogen is associated with increased leptin. Some hormones released in response to stress, including dexamethasone, also increase leptin secretion.

  • Physical training will cause leptin levels to drop for the duration of time that a person engages in a healthy exercise routine. This makes sense, because physical exercise stimulates metabolism and increases the need for calories to maintain a certain weight.

  • The more insulin that your body produces, the more leptin that your body will produce.

  • For complex reasons, obesity actually leads to an increase in Leptin production.

  • Overweight individuals with obstructive sleep apnea experience increased leptin levels, but CPAP treatment can bring leptin production back to more normalized levels. Short-term sleep deprivation can lead to a reduction in Leptin production, but long term issues with sleep deprivation, such as sleep apnea, can increase leptin concentrations.

Effects of Leptin

After Leptin is released by body fat and other cells, it suppresses hunger primarily through three mechanisms:

  • Encourages the production of α-MSH, which suppresses hunger.

  • Blocks the activity of anandamide, a hormone which encourages hunger via the same mechanism as THC present in marijuana.

  • Blocks the activity of Neuropeptide Y, a molecule released by the hypothalamus and the stomach which encourages hunger.

In spite of the fact that leptin is the hormone that we most associate with hunger, it is actually only responsible for long-term appetite control. Other hormones are responsible for short term and intermediate hunger:

  • PYY3-36 is the reason why we don't feel hungry between meals. This hormone encourages us to eat our meals during single sittings.

  • Cholecystokinin is the hormone which is produced as we eat which inhibits hunger signals. This hormone helps us know when we are full at a particular meal.

Of course, leptin does play a role in the way that these hormones function. Animal research involving leptin clearly shows how the hormone contributes to diet control, as animals which have their ability to produce leptin removed gain weight uncontrollably as a result of a loss of their ability to become full.

Caloric restriction and fasting both have an inhibitive effect upon the production of Leptin. In addition to this, the body is more reactive to the absence of food, rather than its overabundance, so Leptin production will change faster and more dramatically when the body is not getting enough food. This also means that once food access is restored, hunger response won't return to normal as quickly as it was first altered.

Changes in leptin production resulting from abrupt changes in food access appear to be correlated with changes in food intake and diet rather than the energy available that is locked in body fat. This means that leptin suppression due to hunger is not mitigated by existing body fat.

How Does Leptin Control Diet?

Leptin encourages eating and changes in metabolism by triggering receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus. It used to be believed that blood sugar directly controlled metabolism and eating patterns, but it is clear today that leptin is the mediator of this process.

As we mentioned earlier, Neuropeptide Y activity encourages hunger. There are neurons which produce this hormone in the arcuate nucleus, and as leptin passes through the body, it binds to these neurons, preventing the release of this potent hunger hormone, promoting a disinterest in food. There is also evidence that when Leptin levels are in balance, this makes it easier to eat a healthy diet and not be tempted by the allure of calorie-dense foods.

Prior research has shown that Neuropeptide Y plays an important role in the way that animals eat, including humans. When Neuropeptide Y is artificially introduced to the brain, it automatically triggers the animal to seek out food. The opposite is also true. If the neurons which produce Neuropeptide Y are destroyed, the mice ill become disinterested in eating and become drastically underweight.

Leptin also encourages the release of a peptide known as α-MSH which promotes the feeling of satiety, and genetic abnormalities which limit α-MSH have been shown to increase hunger response and increase the risk of obesity considerably.

Melatonin Affects Leptin Production

In a vacuum, elevated melatonin leads directly to reduced production of leptin. On the other hand, if insulin is in circulation, melatonin leads to an increase in leptin production. This interaction is important because it prevents us from becoming hungry while we are asleep, which can disturb sleeping patterns.

This is why it is generally encouraged to eat a healthy dinner a few hours before bed. This way, your stomach isn't full while you are asleep, but your digestive system is still somewhat active, which means that you have insulin and melatonin in your blood stream, which encourages healthy sleep.

By the end of the night, when insulin levels drop, Leptin levels start to fall as well, as melatonin levels are still elevated. This, in combination with an increase in cortisol and other factors, helps set the stage for you to wake up refreshed and hungry.

Leptin and Diabetes

Preliminary animal research shows that combining leptin with insulin improves metabolism and stabilizes blood sugar more effectively. This combination also helped promote healthier body composition while also balancing cholesterol.

Leptin and the Cardiovascular System

Leptin has an impact on the activity of T-Cells in the immune system. Leptin promotes the health of the heart tissue and healthy leptin levels reduce the inflammatory activity which promotes atherosclerosis. There is also evidence that elevated Leptin levels can help control blood pressure if prescribed medically.

Leptin and the Reproductive System

Leptin does not play any predominant role in human fertility, but it is important and necessary to create the conditions which promote fertility. The regularity of the menstrual cycle depends upon proper metabolism, and is dependent upon the normalized flow of energy through the body, which leptin plays a part in regulating.

If a woman frequently enters a state of starvation, whether purposefully or unintentionally, the menstrual cycle will go into dormancy. Also, if a woman engages in heavy exercise, they also risk entering this state, even if they consume enough calories to meet the demands of their body. On the other hand, menstruation is only affected by low body mass in extreme cases.

In both sexes, Leptin encourages the hypothalamus to produce Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, the precursor to Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone necessary to encourage both sex hormone production as well as sperm production.

Leptin and Pregnancy

During pregnancy, leptin is produced by the placenta, and it continues to be produced in greater concentration throughout pregnancy before returning to baseline after the child is born. This is because leptin has an inhibitory effect upon contractions, allowing the child to develop within the womb. When leptin levels fall, this encourages contractions and helps to stimulate childbirth. Elevated leptin levels also contribute to the condition of morning sickness that commonly takes place during pregnancy.

Leptin and Puberty

There are two hormones which determine when an individual enters puberty: kisspeptin and leptin. In the period just before puberty, leptin levels start to rise, and once they reach a certain point, puberty is triggered. Childhood obesity can lead to early puberty, because adipose fat cells produce leptin, and cause leptin levels to reach the triggering point much faster than in children with normal levels of body fat. There is also evidence that girls that enter puberty early don't grow as tall as their peers, because the increase in estrogen production promotes the closure of the growth plates.

Leptin and Bone Mineral Density

Leptin also appears to help promote healthy bone mineral density. When the brain receives sufficient satiation signals, it then signals the bones to undergo metabolic changes which promote cortical bone growth and inhibit cancellous bone. Cancellous bone is the softer tissue in the core of the bone, and cortical bone is the hard casing which covers the cancellous bone. Thus, leptin plays a role in bone maturation during puberty because the bones become thicker and harder, allowing them to carry more weight.

After puberty, leptin still plays a role in bone metabolism, because once it activates at its receptor sites on the hypothalamus, is alters the production of a number of other hormones and peptides associated with the regulation of bone mineral density. There is also some evidence that Leptin directly contributes to increased bone mineral density by playing an intermediary role between metabolism and the release and activation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-One. As a result of this connection, there may be treatments in the future which utilize leptin in order to enhance the natural healing processes of bone tissue after breaks and fractures.

Leptin and the Brain

Although the primary trigger point for leptin is the hypothalamus, there are also receptors for the hormone at other locations within the brain. One of the largest receptor sites outside of the hypothalamus is the hippocampus.

Research has clearly shown that Leptin Deficiency has a negative impact on the normal function of neurons as well as brain proteins. In animal studies, normal neurological function in this instance can be restored by providing injections of leptin.

In humans, Leptin Deficiency is associated with neurological and cognitive changes that are associated with HIV, depression, and anorexia. There is even evidence in rats that leptin deficiency may play a role in Alzheimer's, and that providing leptin therapy may be able to increase cognitive ability and reduce the negative effects of the disease by limiting the concentrations of hyperphosphorylated tau and b-amyloid, which are two of the main factors which make Alzheimer's such a devastating neurological disorder.

Leptin and the Immune System

Leptin is intricately related to the immune system response of inflammation, and leptin has a regulatory effect upon a number of factors which affect immune health, including body fat, caloric restriction, stress, sleep, and Testosterone levels. It is hypothesized that the primary mechanism which links Leptin to immune health is that Leptin helps control the activity of cytokines released by adipose tissue.

Leptin is actually structurally similar to cytokines both in function and its molecular composition. There is evidence that Leptin plays an active role in the way that the body handles and manages stress, but the direct mechanisms are not completely understood. There is also a positive correlation between white blood cell count and leptin levels.

Diseases Associated with High Leptin Levels

There are a number of medical conditions which are associated with abnormally high leptin levels, especially those associated with inflammation. Among these are cardiovascular disease, chronic fatigue, and hypertension.

Elevated levels of leptin are correlated with overeating, the mass of adipose fat cells, and overall body composition, but leptin is not connected in any way to physical activity. Exercise does not stimulate or suppress the production of leptin directly. For this reason, it is hypothesized that leptin is designed to activate only with regard to inflammation related to adipose fat. Leptin promotes the formation of new blood vessels, promotes inflammation, and encourages cellular metabolism.

Based on these factors, it is believed that the elevation of leptin levels due to overeating is a mechanism designed to limit the stress on fat cells caused by abrupt changes related to increased caloric intake. When the fat cells no longer have enough room to absorb all the calories being delivered, this causes the body to begin to store fat in the muscles, arteries, and organs, which is dangerous.

So in this sense, leptin triggers satiation in order to prevent the body from eating so much that the fat cells can no longer make room for it all, but obesity causes the body to produce too much of the hormone, which can have negative effects. Like other inflammatory/stress hormones, the body needs leptin, but there are serious issues which can result when the hormone is allowed to remain at abnormally high levels for too long.


The Facts on Leptin: FAQ - The Truth about the Hormone Leptin and Obesity


Serum Leptin Levels in Males with Delayed Puberty during Short-Term Pulsatile GnRH Administration.


Wikipedia: Leptin



Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 28 September 2015

Enclomiphene Citrate May Treat Andropause More Effectively than Bio-Identical Testosterone

Bio-Identical Testosterone has been used for decades in order to treat Low-T caused by Hypogonadism and Andropause. There is a drug currently undergoing Clinical Evaluation which is likely to reach the open market in just a matter of years, known as Enclomiphene Citrate.

Medications similar to Enclomiphene Citrate have long been used as fertility treatments for women, but studies indicate that the treatment can also provide men with a potent boost of Testosterone without a risk of overdose.

Enclomiphene Citrate Affects Men and Women Differently

In women, Enclomiphene Citrate encourages the process of ovulation, but in men, it encourages the release of precursor hormones which stimulate the production of both natural, endogenous Testosterone and sperm.

In fact, these trials provide evidence that Enclomiphene Citrate is even better than Testosterone Injections and Creams at restoring natural Testosterone Levels, all the while promoting healthier hormone balance and circulation in other ways.

How Does Testosterone Replacement Treat Low-T?

Bio-Identical Testosterone Therapy simply replaces the Testosterone that the body no longer produces at sufficient concentrations to sustain male health. Testosterone Therapy can bring Testosterone Levels back to normal, but it comes with side-effects, both inherent in the treatment and related to accidental overdose. Because Testosterone Therapy provides an outside source of Testosterone, the treatment suppresses the body's production of Testosterone Precursors that are responsible for healthy testicles, which leads to fertility issues as well as Testicular shrinkage.

Enclomiphene Citrate is Cheaper than Testosterone

Enclomiphene Citrate is also cheaper than Testosterone, meaning that, if the treatment is found to be effective and gains FDA Approval, and it appears likely that this will be the case, countless men will flock from Bio-Identical Testosterone to Enclomiphene Citrate in order to get more cost effective care that is easier to administer. Unlike Testosterone, which is generally delivered via injection or topical formulation, Enclomiphene Citrate is a simple pill.

Enclomiphene Citrate Clinical Research Study

At this point, Enclomiphene Citrate for Men is in the second stage of its clinical trial, after showing incredible promise in the initial stage of research. The details regarding this second phase will be published in the academic publication Fertility and Sterility.

Of course, the process for FDA Approval is a four stage process, but, based on off-label usage of similar medications, and the effectiveness of the treatment in the first two stages, it seems clear that Enclomiphene Citrate for Andropause and Male Infertility will almost certainly obtain FDA Approval.

Testosterone Deficiency Prevalent in American Society

Low-T, also known as Andropause or Age-Related Hypogonadism, is a prevalent condition among men in the United States. Millions of American males suffer from the condition, and studies suggest that the condition is still under-diagnosed, due to a number of different factors.

Testosterone Deficiency is most well-known for its impact on sexual health, but Low-T affects male health and longevity in a number of different ways. Aside from Low Libido, Infertility, and Erectile Dysfunction, other symptoms of Andropause include depression, anxiety, changes in body composition, loss of Bone Mineral Density, muscle atrophy, and lack of energy.

Low-T is a natural aspect of the process of aging, but not everything that is natural is healthy. Study after study shows that men with naturally high Testosterone tend to be both healthier and more well-adjusted than their peers that have lower levels of Testosterone.

When Does Testosterone Production Peak?

Biologically, our Testosterone Levels peak while we are in our teens and twenties, and start to fall off beginning in the thirties. Every man is impacted by Low-T in their own way, and some experience symptoms more quickly and more severely than others. Testosterone Deficiency is associated with a number of chronic medical conditions, from cardiovascular disease to diabetes to obesity.

The State of Modern Testosterone Therapy

One issue with Testosterone Deficiency as it is treated today is that there are no definite thresholds regarding how low Testosterone Concentrations must fall before a patient is ultimately diagnosed. This is partially because there is still ongoing research regarding Testosterone for Andropause, but also because each patient has his own personal genetic profile as well as their own set of unique lifestyle choices.

This means that part of diagnosing Low-T is up to the discretion of the prescribing physician, because it is up to his or her expertise to determine if the severity of the symptoms and the underlying hormone levels warrant therapy.

This also means that Testosterone Therapy is prescribed to meet our standards for what healthy Testosterone Levels should be, rather than the body's natural processes to provide youthful Testosterone. This is where Enclomiphene Citrate can be both useful and perhaps even superior to Testosterone Therapy for many patients.

Enclomiphene Citrate and Andropause

Andropause is a form of Secondary Hypogonadism, meaning that the testes are still fully capable of producing their own Testosterone, they just aren't receiving the same signals that they did when the patient was younger. Enclomiphene Citrate restores this youthful signaling, allowing the body to make just as much Testosterone as it needs to meet the needs of the body. Enclomiphene Citrate encourages youthful production of Testosterone, without the risk of overdose (or under-dose) that is sometimes associated with Testosterone Treatment.

Why is Enclomiphene Citrate Superior to Testosterone?

Bio-Identical Low-T Treatments restore Testosterone quite capably, but they do so without taking into account the other hormones and processes of the male body which depend upon Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone to take place.

When Bio-Identical Testosterone is administered, the body fully absorbs and utilizes the Testosterone, but the three precursors listed above, LH, FSH, and GnRH, no longer get produced in sufficient quantities. This condition does not have a significant impact on health and wellness, but it has a tremendous impact on both male fertility and the condition of the testes themselves.

Doctors Often Prescribe Testosterone to Men that Want Children

Many men take Testosterone without realizing the fertility risk associated with Standard Testosterone Therapy. This is because many general practitioners prescribe Testosterone for Low-T without fully recognizing the downsides associated with the treatment, and thus, they don't relay that information effectively to their patients.

Often, we think of Testosterone Treatment as a therapy for men in the latter stages of their life, but Age-Related Low-T can affect male health even as soon as the early thirties, and many men start taking Testosterone while they are still interested in having children, without recognizing the suppressive effect that the treatment has on a man's ability to produce sufficient sperm for conception.

This lack of knowledge on the part of many physicians is not anecdote, there are studies to back it up. A recent poll by the American Urological Association discovered that fully a quarter of urological specialists were not aware that Testosterone inhibited fertility, and would prescribe Bio-Identical Testosterone Treatments like Axiron to men that were vocally interested in having children in the near future.

Fertility Suppression Due to Low-T Treatment Temporary

Luckily, the fertility risks associated with Bio-Identical Testosterone are short-term, and fertility returns to pre-treatment levels after therapy is suspended, but this still means that many men that would greatly benefit from Testosterone Therapy don't get the opportunity for treatment because of their desire for children.

Clomid vs. Enclomiphene Citrate

In the very near future, there will be a new option available for these men, so they can protect their health and their sexual function while also promoting the healthy production of sperm. Enclomiphene Citrate is a component of a medical treatment that has long been on the market in generic form known as Clomiphene Citrate.

This treatment is also available under the brand name Clomid. The treatment was originally designed to improve fertility in women, but also shows some effectiveness at restoring Testosterone Levels in males. In women, Clomid and Enclomiphene encourage the production of female sex hormones, but in men, the medical treatments encourage the production of Testosterone and sperm.

Clomid is a combination of two active compounds, Enclomiphene Citrate and Zuclomiphene. The benefits of Clomid on Male Sexual Health are primarily the result of the Enclomiphene component of the medication.

The issue with Off-Label prescription of Clomid is that Zuclomiphene does increase the level of Estrogen in the body by a slight amount, meaning that the ideal form of the medication would omit Zuclomiphene entirely. Because of the Estrogenic effects of Zuclomiphene, Clomid is often prescribed in combination with Arimadex in order to counteract those effects and optimize treatment.

Enclomiphene Shown to Be Effective in Stage-2 FDA Trial

In the second stage of clinical research for Enclomiphene Citrate, medical specialists from the Houston campus of the Baylor College of Medicine and Repros Therapeutrics provided 73 male patients with Enclomiphene Citrate for the treatment of Low-T caused by inhibited stimulation of the testes. This is most commonly the result of natural aging, but there are other factors which can impede the release of precursors from the pituitary and hypothalamus as well.

The study went according to the hypotheses supported by Off-Label use of the medication. The researchers found that Enclomiphene Citrate was incredibly effective at increasing Free and Total Testosterone to youthful levels, as well as LH and FSH Levels, which are necessary for proper sexual function.

As a result, Enclomiphene Citrate had no inhibitive effect upon the production of sperm, and perhaps even improved fertility among patients, though this is unclear.

Enclomiphene Works Better Than Clomid for Men

The lead researcher of the study, Dr. Ron Wiehle, explains that Enclomiphene Citrate works via the same mechanism as Clomid, which is prescribed Off-Label, but appears to do so with improved consistency. Further research could prove or disprove that notion, but because Clomid is no longer under patent, there is no financial incentive to study its effects.

On the other hand, Enclomiphene Citrate is still under patent, and is potentially effective for a greater subset of the male population, which provides the motivation for funding and research by private pharmaceutical manufacturers such as Repros Therapeutrics.

Enclomiphene Slightly Reduces IGF-1 Levels

Prior research shows that Enclomiphene Citrate does have a slight suppressive effect upon IGF-1 Production in men. This means that Enclomiphene is likely not a good option for men that simulataneously suffer from significant HGH Deficiency and Testosterone Deficiency simultaneously. This does mean, however, that Enclomiphene Citrate is safer for the prostate than Testosterone Therapy. Further study is needed to elucidate the impact of Enclomiphene upon IGF-1.

Enclomiphene to Be Marketed as Androxal

Although Enclomiphene Citrate is not available on the open market quite yet, the plans are to sell and distribute the medication under the brand name Androxal. Androxal will be specially formulated for male use, to provide the optimal amount of medication to restore the youthful cascade of male hormones necessary to restore vitality and sexual potency.

One reason why there is so much interest in Enclomiphene Citrate is that men in America are choosing to have children later and later in the lifespan, meaning that the segment of the population that experiences symptoms related to Low-T while also being interested in having children continues to grow.

Interested in Enclomiphene Now? Talk to Your Doctor About Clomid!

Although Enclomiphene Citrate is not currently on the market, you can still talk to your doctor about Clomid (Clomiphene Citrate), and find out if you are a candidate for treatment. Clomid is designed and certified for use by women, but there are many physicians all across the country that are highly experienced with the treatment regimen. Clomid may never gain enough traction for FDA-Approval, but the treatment has been used effectively for decades.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 06 July 2014

How Does Human Growth Hormone Deficiency Impact Sleeping Habits: A Clinical Study

Researchers have long been aware that HGH Deficiency is strongly correlated with an increased incidence of sleeping problems, and in recent years, more time and effort have gone into exploring that correlation.

How Were Patients Selected for this HGH Sleep Study?

One study, published in 2010, analyzed thirty patients with Abnormally Low Growth Hormone Levels from four different University medical centers: the University of Pisa, Italy, the University of Liege in Belgium, the Free University of Brussels, and the University of Chicago. Patients were diagnosed with Human Growth Hormone Deficiency using a method known as the Insulin Tolerance Test. Patients were selected for this study if they showed less than three micrograms per liter after drinking Glucose Solution. Twenty-four of the patients suffered from Adult-Onset Hypopituitarism, while six were diagnosed early in life with Childhood-Onset Hypopituitarism.

Patients that were selected for study had not taken Bio-Identical HGH Injections for a minimum of six months before they were selected, and some participants had never used Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone Injections. Subjects were screened for a number of conditions, and were turned away if they showed any signs of Diabetes, Hyperprolactinemia, Psychiatric/Neurological Disease, chronic infection, heart problems, kidney problems, liver disease, or drug/alcohol abuse.

Also, patients that had traveled three time zones or more in the previous two weeks were excluded, as were people that were shift workers in the prior three months. Finally, participants had to be off of sleeping medications for a minimum of 90 days.

Adult-Onset HGH Deficiency Causes

The source of Hypogonadism varied from patient to patient. In twelve of the thirty patients, Adult-Onset Hypopituitarism was the result of a pituitary issue that did not involve other parts of the endocrine system. Ten patients had their pituitary removed via surgery. One patient experienced the death of a pituitary tumor which suppressed HGH Levels, and one patient suffered from the same issue, but from the stalk of the pituitary. None of these patients suffered from Diabetes Insipidus.

The second group of patients had pituitary issues that could have been partially the result of hypothalamic insufficiency. Two patients had a tumor removed from the pituitary and suffered from Diabetes Insipidus. One patient received radiation therapy to remove a pituitary tumor. Two patients experienced HGH Deficiency as a result of Craniopharyngioma. One patient had a pituitary tumor break down while also suffering from Diabetes Insipidus. There were two patients that had lesions both of the hypothalamus and the pituitary, resulting from histiocytosis and neurosarcoidosis, respectively.

Childhood-Onset HGH Deficiency Causes

In the Childhood-Onset Hypopituitarism group, six of the ten patients experienced their deficiency as a result of a known genetic predisposition to HGH Deficiency. One patient suffered from Hypothalamic Insufficiency that led to HGH Deficiency. Three others suffered from Hypopituitarism resulting from the appearance or removal of tumors from the Pineal Gland, the Olfactory Duct, and a Brain Tumor, respectively. Finally, the tenth participant suffered from HGH Deficiency resulting from Brain Thrombosis.

More HGH Patient Information

Among the thirty patients, 28 of them had received Bio-Identical Hormone Deficiency Treatment in the past for their Pituitary Insufficiency. There were 24 male patients and 6 female patients in the study. Each female HGH Deficiency subject was taking Estrogen Replacement Therapy, with 4 of those 6 taking progesterone as well.

Sixteen of the patients were simultaneously suffering from Testosterone Deficiency, and were either replacing their Testosterone with Intramuscular Testosterone Injections, or Topical Testosterone Products.

Twenty-one patients were taking Thyroxine for Thyroid Deficiency and twenty-four were taking cortisone acetate or hydrocortisone for adrenal hormone deficiency. Finally, seven patients were taking desmopressin.

HGH Deficiency: Experimental vs. Control

Every patient in this Hypopituitarism Sleep Study had their own personal control with normal HGH Levels. Experimental Group Patients averaged around 72 micrograms per deciliter, whereas control patients had an average of 194 micrograms per deciliter. All experimental patients had normal levels of potassium, sodium, and glucose. Overall, patients had Thyroxine Levels which averaged 86% of normal.

Each patient was matched with a control based upon Body Mass Index, Age, and Gender. The results of this study indicate that Human Growth Hormone Deficiency is strongly associated with daytime fatigue, inhibited sleep quality, and too much high-intensity Slow Wave Sleep. Strangely enough, this increased level of Slow Wave Sleep is not normally associated with most sleeping disorders, which are the result of inhibited Slow Wave Sleep.

There are a number of mechanisms by which this abnormal sleeping condition could lead to issues with sleep health and quality. There is evidence that Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone enhances Delta Activity, because in healthy brains, HGH and IGF-1 serve as a negative feedback mechanism to limit Human Growth Hormone Production. There is animal research which supports this theory.

How Did HGH Deficiency Effect the Sleeping Patterns of Younger Patients?

Researchers also hypothesize that the hormone imbalance caused by the overproduction of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone could cause the body to continue to release signals for Slow Wave Sleep even while awake, which could lead to issues with daytime tiredness. This is especially pronounced among the youngest patients, as those with elevated levels of Slow Wave Sleep were more tired during the day than their counterparts. Among the thirty participants, exhaustion was the single complaint most reported in Self-Reported Quality of Life Scales.

How Did HGH Deficiency Effect the Sleep of Older Patients?

Among older Hypopituitarism patients, the most significant issue appeared to be a lack of sufficient REM Sleep, which is strongly correlated with Human Growth Hormone Deficiency. Lack of REM-Sleep is associated with a number of medical issues, including issues with memory. In this study, older patients with Human Growth Hormone Deficiency were more likely than their control counterparts to suffer from memory issues. As the body of research continues to grow, it becomes increasingly clear that memory is strongly correlated with sufficient REM-Sleep in adult patients.

Another issue that Older Adult Hypopituitarism Patients experienced was that they slept less than their control counterparts, and also slept less soundly and experienced a higher level of sleep fragmentation. It is true that older men and women experience less REM sleep as they grow older, as well as shorter sleep, and more frequent rousing from sleep, but experimental patients experienced these sleep issues at a rate higher than their control peers, and HGH Deficiency appears to be a powerful mechanism which inhibits healthy sleep among these patients.

Older Adult HGH Deficiency patients simultaneously experienced Slow Wave Sleep of high intensity and long duration earlier in the sleep cycle, and had more issues staying asleep later in the sleep cycle. This is a strange issue, because enhanced Slow Wave Sleep is usually correlated with longer, steadier sleep.

Pituitary Insufficiency Vs. Combination Hypothalamic-Pituitary Insufficiency

So, for patients that only experienced pituitary issues with no hormone imbalance resulting from hypothalamic insufficiency, Slow Wave Sleep was longer, but didn't provide sleep benefits for other reasons. This was not the case for patients that were suffering from Hypothalamic issues in addition to Pituitary Insufficiency. Patients that had diminished GH-RH response had issues with Non-REM Sleep, not reaching a sufficient depth of sleep for optimal health. There is significant evidence from other studies that shows that GH-RH Deficiency is associated with an inability to sleep deeply.

For participants that were suffering from Pituitary issues in which Hypothalamic Insufficiency was not ruled out, the results were a mix between the two classes of Hormone Deficiency.

How Did this HGH Sleep Study Compare to Previous Studies?

Interestingly enough, the results of this study were different from another study released twenty years previously, which studied patients with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency. There are a number of reasons for this, however. In the older study, participants were controlled on age and sex, but not with regard to Body Mass Index.

There were other aspects which were insufficiently controlled as well. Patients were not monitored for how long they slept, nor when they went to sleep. The earlier study also allowed for naps, and patients were not limited in their activity in the previous study.

In this earlier study, patients slept much longer, ranging from 7:45 of sleep to 11:44 among the eight patients. Increased need for naps and longer periods of sleep are generally associated with fitful sleep which is not sufficiently deep. Because of these various differences, the results in the newer study were different.

Another older study found no significant difference between patients with Adult-Onset Human Growth Hormone Deficiency and otherwise healthy patients, but the patients were not matched to their controls with regard to sleeping habits, age, gender, and other characteristics, which led the study to be unable to register sleep differences between HGH Deficiency patients and healthy patients.

Could Other Hormone Deficiencies Have Impacted Sleep Quality?

Almost all of the patients in this Growth Hormone Deficiency Study received some form of Hormone Replacement Treatment, such as Estrogen, Testosterone, Thyroxine, Cortisone, or Hydrocortisone, although none of the patients were receiving Growth Hormone Therapy.

There is no way to rule out that any of these treatments or other underlying hormone deficiencies could have an impact on their sleeping patterns and habits as well. In spite of this, the fact that older patients experienced greater issues with sleep than their younger counterparts does provide strong evidence that HGH / GH-RH Deficiency do have a powerful impact on sleep quality.

HGH Study Conclusion

Based on the results of this study, there is strong evidence that Human Growth Hormone Deficiency impacts health in a number of ways related to sleep, including increased feelings of exhaustion and sleepiness during the day, caused by inhibited sleep quality during the night.

The mechanism by which Human Growth Hormone Deficiency impacts sleep quality depends on multiple variables, and the age of the patient and the cause of HGH Deficiency both seem to be very important signifiers.

How Does This Study Relate to Age-Related Hypopituitarism and Somatopause?

It's important to note that this study almost universally involved patients with damaged or otherwise non-functional Somatotrophs. Age-Related HGH Deficiency is most commonly the result of an underlying GH-RH Deficiency.

Patients in this study that were unable to produce sufficient GH-RH experienced issues with their ability to achieve deep sleep, which is in line with the experiences of patients that suffer from HGH Deficiency resulting from the aging process.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 21 June 2014

What is Adrenal Fatigue, and How Does It Impact Physical and Mental Health?

Adrenal Fatigue is a medical condition that occurs when the body's ability to produce adrenal hormones is suppressed, preventing the body from functioning optimally. The body has a limited ability to produce certain hormones over time, and if the body produces too much of certain hormones over an extended period of time, it can sometimes no longer meet the needs of the body.

What Causes Adrenal Fatigue?

Adrenal Fatigue has many causes, and most are related to any issue which chronically puts physiological stress upon the body. High levels of psychological stress can lead to Adrenal Fatigue, as well as constant stress over a long period of time. Adrenal Fatigue can also occur as a result of physical stress from a variety of sources, including pneumonia, bronchitis, the flu, and chronic infections. Respiratory System infections are more likely to lead to Adrenal Fatigue than other forms of infection.

Adrenal Fatigue Is Caused By Exhausted Adrenal Glands

The primary symptom of Adrenal Fatigue is the reduced function of the Adrenal Glands that does not see improvement, even with sufficient rest. Adrenal Fatigue is a complex condition that is associated with a number of different disorders. Think of it as a symptom of other issues that are causing problems for the body or mind.

Adrenal Fatigue often goes undiagnosed, and people often mistake the symptoms of Adrenal Fatigue for psychological symptoms such as mild depression, exhaustion, or a general lack of well-being. People that have Adrenal Fatigue will often try to self-medicate their condition subconsciously by drinking a lot of cola or coffee or using stimulants to keep themselves energized enough to get by.

What Are Other Terms for Adrenal Fatigue?

Over the course of the 20th Century, Adrenal Fatigue has gone by a number on names, including Adrenal Apathy, Adrenal Neurasthenia, Neurasthenia, Sub-Clinical Hypoadrenia, and Non-Addison's Hypoadrenia. There are millions that suffer from Adrenal Fatigue in the United States and across the globe, but the condition is not distinctly considered a medical syndrome by most medical groups, and is simply considered a collection of connected symptoms.

How Can Adrenal Fatigue Impact My Life?

Adrenal Fatigue can significantly impact both your health and your general sense of well-being. Although the excess production of Adrenal Hormones such as Cortisol can have detrimental impacts on your health and wellness, so can too little of these hormones. Adrenal Hormones activate your body, getting you ready to seize the day, but they are not intended to remain at high levels 24/7.

Adrenal Hormone Production also spikes when you reach an impasse where your body activates the fight-or-flight response, helping you make split second decisions that could benefit you or even save your life. Obviously, nature never intended for Adrenal Hormones like Cortisol to remain at elevated levels for an extended period of time, and your Adrenal Glands eventually wear down and can lose their ability to produce enough of these hormones when they are actually needed.

In the case of severe Adrenal Fatigue, it can become difficult to even rouse yourself from bed for more than a brief period each and every day.

Adrenal Fatigue is a condition which can increase in severity over time, causing the symptoms to become more problematic. Every system of your body is impacted by diminished Adrenal Hormones, and this effects the core functions of your body. It can diminish your libido, strain your cardiovascular system, affect electrolyte and fluid balance, slow down protein synthesis and cause you to gain weight more quickly. It can also lead to diabetes and other conditions related to carbohydrate balance.

When your body doesn't produce enough Adrenal Hormones, your various systems and organs have to adapt to this biological change, and function at a sub-optimal level. Your body can function in a state of Adrenal Fatigue, but health will deteriorate in a number of different ways at the same time.

What Is the Underlying Cause of Adrenal Fatigue?

The definition of Adrenal Fatigue is quite simple, even though its causes are quite complex. Adrenal Fatigue simply means that the body is no longer producing enough Adrenal Hormones to keep up with the stress signaling of the body. If stressors are controlled, the body can boost Adrenal Function and regain Adrenal Hormone Balance, restoring the body to an enhanced state of Homeostasis.

The Adrenal Glands are responsible for the response to all forms of stress, whether they be psychological, emotional, or physical. When the Adrenal Glands activate, it leads to a cascade of hormonal changes which improve the body's ability to manage stress. Among the functions that are influenced by increased Adrenal Hormones are muscle tone, heart rate, immunity, and metabolism.

As we said, Cortisol and other Adrenal Hormones are activated under all forms of stress, whether you are defending yourself in a fight, mourning the loss of a loved one, fighting the flu, or just worried about your job. If the amount of stress that you experience is overwhelming, then you will start to tax your Adrenal System and will have physiological issues related to Adrenal Fatigue.

In a state of Adrenal Fatigue, you are still able to produce Adrenal Hormones, just not as much as your body needs to preserve normal function. Over-stimulation negatively impacts your Adrenal Health, and this leads to Hormone Imbalance which negatively impacts your health.

Adrenal Fatigue can be caused by chronic stress, or by single events that put a tremendous strain on your body or mind.

Who Is Most Likely to Experience Adrenal Fatigue?

Adrenal Fatigue is a condition that can affect anyone at any age. This condition is a stimulus-response at its core, and it doesn't matter how healthy you are, psychological stress and illness can put the weight of Adrenal Fatigue on your shoulders. Our Adrenal Glands have a limited capacity at any age or in any health state.

Although Adrenal Fatigue can happen to anyone, there are a number of environmental factors that can increase the risk of Adrenal Fatigue, including:

  • High Levels of Pressure and Expectation

  • Poor Sleep

  • Drug Abuse

  • Alcohol Abuse

  • Poor Nutrition

  • Infection-fighting

  • Chronic Illness

  • Relationship Stress

  • Personal Stress

  • Pregnancy

How Prevalent is Adrenal Fatigue?

Because Adrenal Fatigue isn't clinically recognized as a unique disorder, and is usually lumped in with other medical conditions, there is not sufficient data to say exactly how many people today suffer from the condition, although it can safely be considered to be at least somewhat common, if not more so.

In the late 1960s, a physician named Dr. John Tinterra was an Adrenal Specialist who was clinically active in the treatment of diminished Adrenal Function. He explained that, in the late 1960s, more than one in seven people were struggling with severe Adrenal Fatigue, although a much greater number of people were dealing with at least minor issues related to Inhibited Cortisol Production.

How Do I Know If I am Suffering From Adrenal Fatigue?

There are a number of symptoms associated with Adrenal Fatigue. Because Adrenal Fatigue is a complex disorder, it is the collection of symptoms which indicates the condition, rather than any particular, single symptom. Answer the following questions:

  • Do you feel exhausted with no clear cause?

  • Is it hard for you to rouse yourself from bed, even when you got adequate sleep the night before?

  • Do you have trouble recovering from illness or stress?

  • Do you frequently crave sweets and salty foods?

  • Do your energy levels peak during the late evening?

If you answered Yes to more than one of these questions, there is a significant chance that you may be suffering from Adrenal Fatigue, and you could greatly benefit from seeing a qualified, licensed medical professional regarding your health and hormone balance.

What Are Some Medical Conditions Commonly Related to Adrenal Fatigue?

Any medical issue that causes high levels of physiological stress can lead to Adrenal Fatigue. Patients experiencing chronic medical issues such as cancer or arthritis are particularly susceptible to depleted function of the Adrenal Glands. If you are suffering from a chronic medical condition, and you find it very difficult to get up and about, there is a very high likelihood that Adrenal Fatigue is affecting your energy levels.

There are also medications that can suppress adrenal activity, such as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are synthetic hormones which imitate the function of the Adrenal Hormones, and the body will produce less of its own Cortisol and other hormones as a direct result. They are generally prescribed when the body is not producing sufficient Adrenal Response, but once treatment has been suspended, it can lead to symptoms of Adrenal Fatigue.

Adrenal Fatigue and Human Growth Hormone

Adrenal Fatigue can lead to HGH Deficiency if left untreated. The body primarily produces Natural Human Growth Hormone during sleep and during intense physical activity. Because Adrenal Fatigue can sap the body of energy, it is no longer as simple of an endeavor to go out and get sufficient exercise. Also, Adrenal Fatigue has a tremendous impact on sleep quality, which often prevents sufferers from reaching the deep phases of sleep necessary to encourage sufficient HGH Production.

For Patients suffering from HGH Deficiency or Hypopituitarism, Injectable HGH can alleviate the effects of the condition and improve Adrenal Balance, improving overall health.

Adrenal Fatigue and Testosterone in Men

Adrenal Fatigue is associated with a number of symptoms that can contribute to Low Testosterone. Clinical research shows that men that experience Adrenal Fatigue are more likely to suffer from Testosterone Deficiency. This is because Cortisol and Testosterone are both steroid hormones, and are both built from the same ingredients. If the body has been producing high levels of Cortisol, then the body no longer has enough raw ingredients to produce the sufficient amount of Testosterone to meet the needs of the body.

Testosterone Deficiency exacerbates the symptoms of Adrenal Fatigue, and the opposite is also true. This can lead to drastic changes in metabolism which lead to weight gain and muscle atrophy, while making fatigue even more pronounced. This can also affect sexual ability and libido, diminishing a man's ability to engage in fruitful, productive sexual activity.

Andropause and Hypogonadism can also lead to Adrenal Fatigue, as the reduced natural production of Testosterone can increase the body's Adrenal System activity due to physiological stress and Hormone Imbalance, which can inhibit the normal and healthy function of the body. For men with Age-Related Low-T, Testosterone Replacement with Creams, Patches, and Injections can help patients restore normal Sex Hormone and Adrenal Balance.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 21 June 2014

The Facts About Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a medical condition which is caused by the excessive release of Human Growth Hormone by the pituitary, or by a tumor. The pituitary gland is a very small gland that rests just behind the eyes underneath the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the Master Gland, because of the various functions that the pituitary gland controls, including reproductive function, metabolism, and growth.

What Causes Acromegaly?

The vast majority of patients with Acromegaly experience the condition as a result of a benign tumor attached to the pituitary gland, which imitates the activity of the Somatotrophs which are responsible for the release of Natural Growth Hormone. Excess HGH production over the course of a long period of time causes the body to grow abnormally. It causes the bones and cartilage in the feet, hands, and face to grow abnormally long and thick. Pituitary tumors that cause acromegaly can also lead to migraines because of the increased pressure in the brain, or pressure on the optic nerve.

How Do Hormones Contribute to Acromegaly?

Acromegaly effects the production and activity of three particular hormones that are very important, and all related to the somatotrophs. These are the hormones which are primarily affected by acromegaly:

Human Growth Hormone - Normally, the human body produces HGH throughout the day, in short bursts known as pulses. The hormone is primarily released during deep sleep and during intense physical activity. When the body produces too much HGH, it impacts the growth of organs and systems all throughout the body, and can impact physical appearance.

Insulin-like Growth Factor-One - The release of this hormone is directly influenced by the release of Human Growth Hormone. HGH circulates through the body, and much of it is processed by the liver into IGF-1. IGF-1 remains active more constantly than Human Growth Hormone, and many symptoms of Acromegaly are caused by a simultaneous rise in these two hormones.

Somatostatins - These hormones play an important role in Growth Hormone and IGF-1 regulation. Under normal circumstances, the human body recognizes the influx of HGH and IGF-1 and the brain releases somatostatins in response to mitigate the release of HGH by the pituitary. Somatostatin Therapy plays an important role in the treatment of Acromegaly.

What are the Symptoms of Acromegaly?

Acromegaly is a complex disorder which affects both health and appearance. Many people don't realize that they are suffering from Acromegaly for many years, because the effects onset slowly, and can often be difficult to notice until the symptoms are already problematic. Often, acromegaly symptoms are written off simply as aging by the patient, and there are many conditions which can imitate some of the symptoms of the condition.

Acromegaly often doesn't become clearly noticeable for many years. It is important to understand that although there are many signs and symptoms, most patients only experience a small number of symptoms. Below are the symptoms that are associated with Acromegaly:

  • Sleep Apnea

  • Diabetes

  • Cardiovascular Issues

  • Hypertension

  • Vision Changes due to Tumor Growth

  • Migraines

  • Cartilage swelling

  • Increased Size of Internal Organs

  • Increased size of Feet, Hands, and Jaw

  • Joint Swelling and Pain

  • Sweating

  • Acne, Increased Oil Production, Thicker Skin, and other Skin Issues

  • Nasal Congestion

  • Goiter

  • Impotence

  • Menstrual Disruption

  • Skin Tags

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

How is Acromegaly Diagnosed?

There are a number of tests that can effectively diagnose and keep track of Acromegaly. The most effective blood test for Acromegaly is Growth Hormone Analysis. Normally, HGH Levels spike and remain in the blood stream for only a brief period of time, but in the case of Acromegaly, Growth Hormone Levels remain excessively high, or reach abnormally high spikes..

Natural HGH Secretions are dependent upon a number of different variables, including when the test is taken, age, and genetics, as well as the last time that you ate. The following are the main means by which Growth Hormone Levels are Tested:

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test - The easiest way to analyze Growth Hormone Levels through a single test is for the patient to fast for a single night and provide blood after drinking a specialized solution of glucose concentrate.

IGF-1 Testing - One can also test for Acromegaly by testing IGF-1, which is released directly as a response to Growth Hormone Secretion. IGF-1 is a byproduct of Acromegaly, and it is exceedingly rare that IGF-1 Levels do not increase to abnormally high levels as a result of Acromegaly. IGF-1 Levels can also be easily tested, because they don't spike like HGH Levels.

Acromegaly Imaging Tests for Tumor Identification

Once the case for Acromegaly has been established, the physician will generally recommend imaging scans in order to identify the tumor. This can be completed using a CT Scan or an MRI. These tests provide a high-resolution image of the brain which can be monitored for tumors or other abnormalities. These Imaging Scans are outpatient procedures that do not require any patient preparation.

Health Tests Performed After Acromegaly Diagnosis

After Acromegaly has been diagnosed via HGH/IGF-1 Levels and a visual confirmation on the tumor, there are other tests that will be necessary to assess the health of the patient. Patients will usually undergo vision testing, chest X-Ray, and ECG to monitor the extent to which Acromegaly has affected the health. None of these tests require a stay at a hospital, and none of these tests even necessarily require a trip to the hospital, though they may be performed at one.

The technicians and specialists that perform these tests will forward the results directly to your primary care physician, who will explain the results in detail and use all of the information available to inform you of your current condition and what steps can be taken to improve your health.

Why Is It Important to Control and Treat Acromegaly

Until the tumor is surgically or medically removed, the condition is chronic, but proper treatment can cancel out the health modulating effects of the tumor. Through proper treatment, you can improve your health significantly and significantly reduce the risks associated with the condition.

Most patients begin treatment almost immediately after they have received diagnosis, and your healthcare provider can take steps to control the various factors at play with regard to Acromegaly, including controlling IGF-1 Levels, HGH Levels, treating the symptoms of the disorder, and treating the tumor itself.

Medical Conditions Associated with Acromegaly

Part of effectively treating Acromegaly is being aware of the increased risk of a number of different disorders and treating them accordingly. These conditions include:

  • Colon Cancer and Colon Polyps

  • Sleep Apnea

  • Diabetes

  • Cardiovascular Disease

  • Hypertension

Take Control of Your Acromegaly Treatment to Maximize Health Outcomes

It's vitally important to maintain awareness of your Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-One Levels in order to effectively treat your condition. Your physician will provide you with somatostatins and other medical treatments designed to treat your hyperpituitarism as well as the medical conditions related to the disorder.

Every day that you go untreated, your health becomes that much more at risk. If you get treatment quickly enough, you can even reverse or at least mitigate some of the symptoms, including Hypertension, Sleep Apnea, Fatigue, Joint Pain, Sweating, Cartilage Swelling, and Headache.

Acromegaly Treatment Options

The most effective way to treat Acromegaly is by taking steps to get rid of the tumor. There are also treatments that can reduce the activity of the tumor until you can get access to treatment that will eliminate it.

  • Surgery for Acromegaly - The most direct way to treat a Pituitary Somatotroph Tumor is through surgery. Because the pituitary is located beneath the brain, it is often possible to remove the tumor with minimal risk, and in doing so, return IGF-1 and Growth Hormone Levels to normal, as well as eliminate Intracranial Hypertension.

This can be achieved through a method known as transsphenoidal surgery. In this procedure, the surgeon enters the brain cavity through the upper lip or through the nose and removes the tumor without having to open the skull.

  • Radiation Treatment for Acromegaly - This form of treatment is paired with surgery in the instance that the pituitary tumor is not removed completely, and prescription medications are not effectively eliminating the remains of the tumor.

  • Prescription Acromegaly Treatment - There are a number of medications that can suppress the Pituitary's ability to produce Human Growth Hormone before surgery, and also help eliminate any tumor remnants that are not fully eliminated through surgery.

Acromegaly and Human Growth Hormone

Acromegaly is a Pituitary Condition

Even though HGH Abuse can lead to symptoms that are normally associated with Acromegaly, it is important to point out that Acromegaly is a specific medical disorder which is caused by a tumor on the pituitary gland, and although long term abuse of Human Growth Hormone can lead to symptoms similar to Acromegaly, the two conditions are unique to one another.

Can HGH Injection Therapy lead to Acromegaly?

No. The goal of Human Growth Hormone Injections is to restore optimal, youthful HGH and IGF-1 Levels in the blood stream, not to introduce more of the hormones than the body is capable of handling in a healthy way. Acromegaly-like symptoms are the result of a long-term flood of Human Growth Hormone, and cannot be triggered by Restorative Doses of HGH.

HGH Abuse and Overdose Does Not Lead to Acromegaly Symptoms for a Long Period of Time

Also, like the condition of Acromegaly itself, it can take years of excess HGH and IGF-1 Levels before it becomes physically apparent that the patient is suffering from such a condition, whether it is from the disease of Acromegaly or the decision to abuse Bio-Identical HGH.

If a patient does begin to show Acromegaly-like symptoms, such as joint stiffness, carpal tunnel syndrome, or increased soft tissue production, there is still time to mitigate or prevent long-term damage to physiological health by suspending Injectable Growth Hormone Abuse.

Famous People with Acromegaly

Today, Acromegaly is recognized more quickly than it was in the past, and treated more promptly, but over the last fifty years there have been a number of celebrities that are known for having Acomegaly, the most famous of which is Andre the Giant. Andre the Giant was 7 foot 4 inches and weighed as much as 520 pounds. He first reached celebrity status as a star of the World Wrestling Federation, and later had a notable acting career, starring in films such as The Princess Bride and Conan the Destroyer.

Although he was largely seen as a beloved character, he dealt with an immense amount of pain from his condition which led him to alcoholism. In spite of his propensity for drinking and his wrestling persona, he was widely regarded as an incredibly kind and gentle person.

Other Celebrities with Acromegaly:

  • WWE star Big Show, also known as Paul Randall Wight, Junior

  • UFC Fighter Antonio Silva

  • Richard Kiel, most famously known for his role as Jaws for the James Bond Franchise

  • Carel Struycken, who starred as Lurch in the Adams Family films


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 21 June 2014

The Facts About Psoriasis

What Is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a medical condition that impacts around three percent of people in the United States. There are over five million men and women with psoriasis across the nation. Psoriasis is characterized by inflammation and scaling of the skin, and is mainly seen in adult patients, though psoriasis can also become an issue during childhood and adolescence. There is no gender divide with this condition, as both women and men are equally likely to experience the condition.

How Does Psoriasis Impact Skin Health?

The mechanism which causes scaling and inflammation is that new skin cells, which normally mature beneath the skin and rise to the surface, move to the surface before they have sufficiently developed. It normally takes a newborn skin cell around thirty days to reach the top layer of the skin, but in the case of Psoriasis, this process of turnover can take place in just a matter of days.

What Are the Symptoms of Psoriasis?

In the most common form of the condition, Psoriasis leads to high levels of inflammation, and the skin becomes red and topped with scales. The areas where scaling develops are called plaques, and they can lead to soreness and severe itching. Common areas where Psoriasis appears on the body are the soles of the feet, palms, face, lower back, scalp, knees, and elbows, although these patches can appear anywhere on the body.

Other areas where Psoriasis can appear are inside the mouth, on the genitals, and underneath the toenails and fingernails. If Psoriasis occurs on the joints, it can lead the inflamed area to become cracked and this can lead to bleeding. The psoriasis can also inflame the joints, which leads to arthritis symptoms. If this occurs, it is referred to as Psoriatic Arthritis.

How Can Psoriasis Negatively Impact Quality of Life?

People that have Psoriasis can experience life-altering issues resulting from the pain and itching associated with Psoriasis. Also, Psoriasis can limit movement in some cases, leading to limited disability.

Some patients experience severe pain and itching, which prevents them from living and appreciating their day to day life, causing sleep to be restless, making bathing a painful chore, and even making walking difficult. Patients that have Psoriasis Plaques on the feet and hands can have issues with any activity that involves those body parts, and they may not be able to participate in some sports or even have jobs in some careers. This can even inhibit their ability to care for their loved ones.

In order to mitigate the symptoms of Psoriasis, it can require frequent trips to the doctor, and the cost to treat the medical disorder is very high, as a result of the chronic nature of the condition. Psoriasis also impacts self-perception, because they are embarrassed about the way they look as a result of their condition. This can lead them to become withdrawn, or make it harder for them to enter romantic relationships. These issues can lead to social isolation, depression, and other psychological issues related to their poor self-image.

What Causes Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a medical condition that results from an overactive immune system, and it is related to the body's production of T-Cells. T-Cells are powerful immune cells which fight disease and infection. When a person has Psoriasis, the body activates T-Cells for no reason and this causes a cascade of immune response which both causes immature skin cells to rise prematurely while also causing high levels of inflammation.

There is a genetic component to Psoriasis, and scientists have been able to link particular genes to the condition, based upon their study of certain family lines which are heavily impacted by the condition. Not all patients with Psoriasis have a family history, however.

What Causes Psoriasis Skin Flare-Ups?

Most people with psoriasis experience periods where their skin health becomes more problematic. These periods are known as flares. Psoriasis will temporarily become much worse, before recovering somewhat. There are a number of issues that can cause these flares to occur, including weather changes that lead to drier skin, stress, and infection.

There are also some medications that can exacerbate Psoriasis, including lithium and blood pressure medications known as Beta-Blockers. Finally, Psoriasis is more likely to flare up in areas of the skin that have experienced damage or irritation from issues such as infection, sunburn, scratches and lesions.

How Do Doctors Diagnose Psoriasis

Sometimes, Psoriasis can be problematic to diagnose, because it shares symptoms with a number of other skin conditions, such as Sebhoerric Dermatitis. The best way to clinically diagnose Psoriasis is by taking a small patch of the inflamed skin and looking at it through a microscope.

What Are the Types of Psoriasis?

There a number of kinds of Psoriasis. Below is a partial list:

  • Plaque Psoriasis - Characterized by inflamed, red skin covered in shiny scales.

  • Guttate Psoriasis - Characterized by small, round areas of inflamed skin on the scalp, limbs, and trunk. This form of the disease is commonly a reaction to strep throat or other infections of the upper respiratory system.

  • Pustular Psoriasis - Characterized by the formation of blisters which are not the result of infection. These blisters are filled with puss, and can be caused by stress, infections, medicines, and contact with particular chemicals.

  • Inverse Psoriasis - Characterized by inflamed areas along skin folds, such as the armpits, beneath the breasts, or around the genitals. Sweating and friction can exacerbate this form of Psoriasis.

  • Erythrodermic Psoriasis - Rapid and widespread appearance of Psoriasis that is commonly caused by corticosteroid medicines or significant sunburn. This form of Psoriasis can also occur as an extension of other forms of Psoriasis which are not effectively controlled. This is the most severe form of the condition, and requires an immediate visit to a medical professional.

What is Psoriatic Arthritis?

Psoriatic Arthritis is a medical condition that is related to and caused by Psoriasis, itself. In this case, Psoriasis penetrates into the skin and causes lesions and inflammation of the joints. Patients can experience both forms of Psoriasis simultaneously, or either alone at any particular time.

How Can Psoriasis Be Effectively Treated?

There are a number of methods that physicians use to mitigate the symptoms of Psoriasis, dependent upon the specific characteristics of the disease, including the locations of inflammation, the form of psoriasis, the surface area of inflammation, the severity of the psoriasis, and the way that the patient has responded to previous treatment.

The following are some common means by which Psoriasis can be treated:

  • Injectable and Oral Psoriasis Medication

  • Phototherapy via Light Exposure

  • Topical Medications

Like any medication, the treatments listed above can lead to side-effects, some minor, some more significant. Always talk to your physician and pharmacist about potential side-effects so you can be armed with the knowledge to recognize them.

There are some issues that make Psoriasis hard to treat. For one, the body can develop a resistance to certain forms of treatment, limiting their effectiveness over time. This is especially true of corticosteroids delivered topically.

Second, every patient responds differently to treatment, and the same medication or therapy may be highly effective for one patient while producing no benefit in a second patient. As a result of this, physicians often switch from therapy to therapy until they find one that works effectively with few or no side effects.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 06 May 2014

Mark Cuban to Finance Medical Study to Prove Benefits of HGH for Rehabilitation

Medical researchers have long understood the potential benefits of HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy to patients suffering from Age-Related Human Growth Hormone Deficiency, but we are just beginning to learn about a wide variety of other potentially beneficial uses for HGH Shots.

There has been growing evidence that HGH Injection Therapy can be useful for rehabilitation, and Mark Cuban, the owner of the Dallas Mavericks, is interested in finding out the real benefits and drawbacks of HGH for Injury Rehabilitation, and is willing to contribute large sums of money to find out the truth of the matter.

Two Year Study Will Test the Effectiveness of HGH

Mark Cuban has already made a major financial contribution with the intention of funding a clinical study at a prominent university. According to his description, the medical study will be conducted over the course of two years and will evaluate the potential ability for Human Growth Hormone Injections to speed up the rate of rehabilitation after an injury. The study will monitor patients from before their operation until long into their recovery process.

Human Growth Hormone Has Long Been Used by Athletes

HGH Injection Therapy has long been used by athletes of all kinds for the purpose of performance enhancement, and there are even rumors abound that many athletes travel overseas to Europe, because medical facilities in Europe often utilize Subcutaneous HGH Therapy in their treatment processes, which many believe speed up the healing process.

HGH Injections Currently Only Legal for a Few Limited Treatments

In the United States, Recombinant HGH is a highly regulated form of medical treatment, and can only be used legally in the country for a few explicit purposes: Human Growth Hormone Deficiency, Idiopathic Short Stature in Children, and HIV/AIDS-Related Wasting. Overseas, some alternative uses for HGH are often encouraged, and off-label use of the medication is considered legal practice. Since HGH was lumped in with Anabolic Steroids in the late 1980s and early 1990s, HGH Prescriptions are highly limited.

With this medical study, Mark Cuban aims to discover the real potential benefit of Human Growth Hormone Injections. There is a large amount of anecdotal evidence regarding the use of HGH for Rehabilitation, but there has been inconclusive medical study to provide a definitive answer. Cuban looks to provide that answer once and for all.

Players Should Be Able to Use All Effective Medical Tools Available to Recover from Injury

Although Mark Cuban leaves no indication that he believes that Human Growth Hormone should be used as a Performance Enhancing Drug, he sees no reason to deny players that ability to use the treatment as a legitimate medical therapy, especially one that is highly useful and beneficial for athletes prone to muscle and joint injuries.

He believes that if Human Growth Hormone Injections can limit the muscle atrophy associated with medical surgery, it should be available to players that have their rehabilitation times lengthened by such atrophy. He believes that reduced recovery times are good both for the player and for professional basketball itself. Cuban feels that if there is no downside, the players should be afforded the opportunity to use the treatment.

What We Know About This Future Study

Cuban does not go into specific details about the study. He does not name the University, and he does not mention the specific injury, but he does explain that the injury affects well over one hundred thousand patients annually. He implies that both groups will go through the exact same treatment regimen, except one group of patients will undergo routine rehabilitation with HGH Injections, and the other group will undergo routine rehabilitation with placebo injections.

Besides the use of injections, the experiment will not negatively impact the normal rehabilitative process, and will provide a clear image of the effects of HGH on Injury Rehab. If the treatment does improve recovery times, it not only benefits NBA Players, it benefits millions of potential patients all across the United States.

Study Awaits DEA and FDA-Approval

Mark Cuban refused to release any overly-specific information regarding the medical study, because it still awaits FDA and DEA-Approval, although at this time he believes there are no roadblocks to approval.

Also, even though he did not mention the university in particular that would conduct the research, he did express that it was a very well-regarded medical institution. At this stage, Cuban is unsure when the study will actually start, because of the need for federal approval.

Mark Cuban Has Long Been an Advocate for Judicious Use of HGH If Deemed Beneficial

Today, Human Growth Hormone is fully banned as a Performance Enhancing Drug by the National Basketball Association. This means that the drug cannot be used by healthy players to attempt to improve their game, but it also means that injured players are not allowed to use the Bio-Identical Hormone as a medical treatment.

Cuban is interested in providing players this opportunity if research suggests that it is beneficial, and discussed this in a recent Board of Governors meeting. He believes that if HGH Injections prove beneficial for Injury Recovery, they should be allowed for use by injured players. After talking about the subject at the meeting, a number of universities contacted him to discuss potential research opportunities.

Motivations for Supporting HGH Research

Mark Cuban says that his main goal in financing this study is to uncover the truth about Human Growth Hormone. He believes that the NBA's current position toward Human Growth Hormone is just a marketing position, and wants to discover the reality for the players, the league, and society at large.

He admits that it benefits him as an NBA owner if Recombinant HGH can increase recovery times, but in this case, what benefits him, personally has the potential to benefit everyone, which has encouraged his desire to see the truth about HGH for Healing.




Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 13 April 2013

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Sermorelin Acetate Therapy with GHRP-6

With Sermorelin Acetate Therapy, it is possible to restore youthful vitality and alleviate the effects of the aging process that result from Human Growth Hormone Deficiency. Sermorelin is a safe and effective hormone substitute which has the capability to naturally stimulate the Human Pituitary Gland in order to encourage the secretion of our own internal stores of Human Growth Hormone.

HGH is created by endocrine organs known as Somatotrophs located in the Anterior Pituitary. Although as we grow older, the body drastically slows down production of HGH over time, the Somatotrophs never lose their ability to produce healthy levels of HGH. This is why Sermorelin Injections are an effective treatment for Growth Hormone Deficiency.

What is Sermorelin?

Sermorelin is the bio-synthetic form of a hormone naturally produced by the hypothalamus, known as Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone. GH-RH is the means by which the brain sends a request to the pituitary to release HGH. GH-RH is delivered from the Hypothalamus to the Pituitary Gland via a pathway of blood vessels known as the Hypophyseal Portal System.

How is Sermorelin different from Bio-Identical HGH?

Unlike Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy, Sermorelin Acetate is not structurally identical to GH-RH, but Sermorelin Acetate is functionally capable of producing the same biological effect on the body that is achieved naturally through GH-RH. Sermorelin Acetate is a truncated form of GH-RH, which means that the bio-synthetic hormone is structurally identical to the active portions of the GH-RH molecule, while omitting portions of the molecule that are inert and do not encourage the release of HGH. Although the Sermorelin molecule is not naturally produced by the body, there are no adverse effects related to the exogenous nature of the hormone. The treatment is perfectly safe.

HGH Decline Begins around Thirty

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Adult Human Growth Hormone production reaches its peak by the time we reach the age of around twenty. Over the course of our twenties, we maintain high levels of HGH production which help us sustain ourselves physically, cognitively, and psychologically. By the time we reach the age of thirty, however, Growth Hormone Production starts to decline at a slow, yet insipid rate of one to two percent each year. Although this may not sound like a significant amount at first, this amounts to an average reduction in endogenous HGH production of around 14% every ten years! By the time a decade of decline has occurred, the human body only produces 40% of the Human Growth Hormone emitted during the period of peak production in our early twenties.

Symptoms of HGH Deficiency

This decline in HGH secretion does not come without significant health consequences. HGH Deficiency is correlated with a number of symptoms and and syndromes that we take for granted as simply a part of the aging process, such as:

  • Immune Suppression

  • Decreased Cognitive Sharpness

  • Wrinkles and Deep Lines

  • Increased Adipose Fat, Especially around the Midsection

  • Reduced Libido

  • Fatigue

  • Reduced Willpower and Motivation

  • Many Other Symptoms throughout the Body

Benefit of Sermorelin Vs. Other Treatments

Although HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy is a safe and effective means of restoring healthy Human Growth Hormone Levels, Sermorelin Acetate Injections completely eliminate the risk of overdose while encouraging the Pituitary Gland to be responsible for the dispensation of HGH rather than self-administration techniques. Sermorelin Acetate presents no risk of HGH Overdose because HGH production by the pituitary is down-regulated by effective biological negative feedback mechanisms.

Sermorelin and Somatostatins

When the brain feels that the human body has a sufficient amount of Human Growth Hormone necessary to maintain optimal health and hormone balance, the hypothalamus releases the inhibitory hormone Somatostatin, which blocks the uptake of Sermorelin and GH-RH by the Hypothalamus, preventing the brain from overloading the body with excess HGH. Because of the effectiveness of Somatostatin at effectively regulating the pituitary, the risk of Growth Hormone Overdose Via Sermorelin Injection is nearly impossible

Clinical Body Fat Reduction Using Sermorelin

Clinical trials show that after a single year of Sermorelin Acetate Therapy, it is possible to achieve a 20% reduction in adipose fat tissue. The majority of this fat tissue is eradicated from the midsection. Fat from the waist, hips, and stomach decline by around 30% while weight loss occurs via marginal areas of body fat such as the legs, arms, neck, and chest at a mass percentage of around 13%.

Sermorelin is Delivered Via Injection

Sermorelin Acetate is a low risk treatment which is delivered via small injections just below the top layers of the skin, known as subcutaneous injection. These shots are simple to administer and patients generally perform their own injections in the privacy of their own homes or offices.

Why is Sermorelin Combined with GHRP-6?

Many treatment protocols combine Sermorelin Acetate Therapy with GHRP-6. GHRP-6 is a synthetic hormone which functions similarly to Sermorelin by encouraging the healthy stimulation of the Pituitary Gland. Although the two hormones achieve the same end, they do so via different chemical pathways and enzyme reactions. GHRP-6 is useful because it helps emulate the normal biological cycle of HGH Release, providing more noticeable gains in HGH Levels than Sermorelin Acetate injections alone while still producing biologically safe levels of Human Growth Hormone.

GHRP-6 and Ghrelin

GHRP-6 shares no significant structural similarity to any hormone produced naturally by the human body, but synthetic GHRP-6 has been proven to encourage the production of Growth Hormone by simulating the biological effect of the hormone Ghrelin on pituitary stimulation. Ghrelin is primarily produced by the stomach and plays a significant role in gastrointestinal function, but the hormone also influences HGH production as well, which is not surprising considering that Human Growth Hormone stimulates cellular metabolism. Ghrelin is an acronym for Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide.

The Effect of Age On GH-RH Production

GH-RH is released at its highest rates during our youth, which corresponds directly with the rate at which our pituitary releases HGH at its most abundant. As we grow older, GH-RH levels start to decline, leading directly to a deficiency of Human Growth Hormone which speeds up the aging process and reduces overall health and well being as a result. HGH Deficiency is also referred to as Hypopituitarism, relating to the suppression of pituitary function that causes the organ to release insufficient levels of vital Growth Hormone.

Phases of HGH Decline

At first, the effects of Hypopituitarism are qualitative in nature and relatively hard to measure, yet vivid to experience. Low HGH first affects energy levels, which can affect overall motivation and suppress innate desires. After energy levels start to decline, the body starts to experience greater levels of fatigue on a physical level. Aside from being sapped of mental energy, the human body loses its ability to sustain itself in the face of high levels of activity. Endurance starts to decrease significantly, and during this period, the body becomes less prepared for high levels of physical exertion and gains from exercise start to decline.

Also, the body's capacity for restorative sleep starts to drop, exacerbating further decline. During the third phase of HGH Deficiency, overall health starts to deteriorate as well. Early in this phase, aesthetic skin health starts to decline rapidly as wrinkles and deep creases start to develop. Cholesterol and Triglyceride levels increase, hypertension often develops as a result of cardiovascular strain and arterial plaques. The body begins to seep calcium from deep within the bones, which inevitably leads to symptoms of osteoporosis over time. During this phase, the body not only responds less readily to exercise, but it will be difficult to make significant gains at all, and in the worst cases, exercise will only serve to prevent muscle atrophy from occurring.

Goal of Sermorelin Therapy

Sermorelin Therapy with GHRP-6 has the potential to alleviate or even reverse many of the symptoms of HGH Deficiency and aging listed above. The Conscious Evolution Institute is one of the premier Anti-Aging Clinics in the country, and we specialize in the legal and legitimate use of Hormone Replacement Therapy as a means to encourage a longer life with enhanced health outcomes. Our fully-trained and board-certified staff of clinical specialists and physicians are dedicated to helping our patients live a longer and healthier life that is full of vigor, energy, and characterized by an overwhelming sense of well-being.

Meet the New You with Sermorelin and GHRP-6

Sermorelin Acetate Therapy with GHRP-6 is a verified safe, effective, and biologically self-containing means to stimulate the pituitary to produce healthy and normal levels of Human Growth Hormone by emulating the effects of GH-RH and Ghrelin on Somatotroph activity. Sermorelin GHRP-6 is available at numerous pharmacies across the United States and is generally compounded on site by a licensed pharmacist. Sermorelin Therapy is not subject to the same restrictions as Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone, and is available with a physician's prescription.

Unlike HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy, there are no legal restrictions placed on the prescribing physician in regard to his or her medical expertise and opinion, and as a result, Sermorelin Injections can be prescribed off-label in order to treat many symptoms of HGH Deficiency that have been clinically shown to be beneficial, yet have not yet been approved by the FDA.

Sermorelin Acetate Injections from the Conscious Evolution Institute

The Conscious Evolution Institute specializes in comprehensive and remote Hormone Replacement Treatments. Although we diagnose and treat our patients remotely, we still play an intimate and responsible role in your medical treatment, providing advice as well as diagnostic services in order to ensure the safety and effectiveness of your Hormone Therapy. In addition to providing services that relate directly to your medication, we also provide nutritional, dietary, and exercise advice in order to help you maximize the effects of your Sermorelin treatment. Sermorelin is highly effective even without making the choice to alter your lifestyle, but committing to a life of more responsible and healthy life choices will allow you to potentially see incredible results over a relatively short period of treatment.

Conscious Evolution Institute Medical Services

A full list of services we provide (either directly or via local affiliate) are:

  • Pre-treatment Medical Questionnaire and Self-Evaluation

  • Initial Physical Examination

  • Diagnostic Testing (via LabCorp)

  • Prescription Hormone Therapy

  • Administrative Services

  • Monthly Doctor's Assessment (per necessity or request)

  • Workout Regimen

  • Nutrition Plan

HGH and IGF-1

After Human Growth Hormone is released into the human body, HGH circulates through the body for a brief period before being mostly converted into a hormone known as IGF-1 in the liver. IGF-1 is the primary vehicle by which Human Growth Hormone affects its incredible, age-defying characteristics. Increased levels of IGF-1 circulate through the blood and boost the rate by which metabolism occurs, providing increased energy levels to all aspects of physiological function. In addition to this, IGF-1 stimulates the healthy development of new cells within the bones and the various organs throughout the body. This pattern of cellular replacement is normal, but slows down significantly as endogenous levels of HGH decline. Increased levels of Growth Hormone and IGF-1 revamp this muted processes, allowing the body to rebuild itself at a pace which protects human youth and vitality more effectively.

Sermorelin and GHRP-6 Frequently Asked Questions:

What are the benefits of Increased HGH Production via Sermorelin and GHRP-6?

  • Increased structural integrity on the bones with improved calcium retention

  • Improved quality of sleep predicated by increased REM Sleep

  • Boosted immune health

  • Higher levels of stamina

  • Improved muscular strength

  • Thicker, fuller hair

  • Enhanced emotional health with increased vitality and energy

  • Improved cardiac function

  • Speedier physical rehabilitation from surgery and injury

  • Increased metabolism which burns adipose fat

  • Smoother, tighter skin

  • Increased muscle mass

  • Enhanced libido and restored sexual ability

  • Improved cognition

  • Enhanced renal function

How do I use Sermorelin?

Sermorelin Acetate is only available via injection. These injections are generally provided once daily before bed, but dependent upon your particular health goals and the advice of your doctor, you may decide to administer your injection either in the morning or before you engage in exercise. Nighttime injections are generally recommended because HGH production primarily occurs during sleep. Dosage will depend upon your individual hormone profile, along with your age and gender.

Should I use Sermorelin or HGH?

Both of these are viable treatment options for patients over the age of thirty. There are fewer restrictions on the usage of Sermorelin Acetate therapy, though both treatment options provide similar potential gains. Some patients claim that HGH produces results at a slightly faster rate than Sermorelin alone. When combined with GHRP-6, however, physiological changes take place more quickly as a result of the biological pathway of GHRP-6. Sermorelin Acetate Therapy is much cheaper than Human Growth Hormone, but some are more pleased with the results they receive from the direct injection of HGH.

What are the side effects of Sermorelin?

Sermorelin Acetate Therapy with GHRP-6 has a small risk of side-effects. The most common of these are swelling and pain around the injection site. Some other patients experience itching because of injection, or difficulty swallowing. Although these two side-effects are not dangerous, it is important to let your doctor know so that corrective measures can be taken. In very rare cases, other side-effects occur, such as vomiting, hyperactivity, headache, and dizziness. These symptoms should be reported to a physician immediately if they occur.

How Can I get Sermorelin with GHRP-6?

If you are interested in Sermorelin Therapy, the Conscious Evolution Institute is your quickest and best source for Hormone Replacement Therapy. In any case, you should only choose a physician or clinic which specializes in hormone balance or is highly experienced in the field of treatment. The Conscious Evolution Institute Specializes in Hormone Replacement Therapy for Adult-Onset Hormonal Deficiency. We maintain regular contact with our patients and provide regular diagnostic testing in order to ensure that the therapy is both safe and successful. We provide reasonable payment plans to help you afford and pay for the treatments we provide at a rate which conforms to your budget and needs.

Sermorelin Treatments Potent and Beneficial

Sermorelin Acetate Therapy with GHRP-6 is a fantastic therapy for those suffering from Adult-Onset Hypopituitarism. If you feel that you are suffering from the effects of the aging process and that HGH Deficiency may be speeding up your decline, Sermorelin Injections can help you restore physical health and alleviate many of the most significant effects of aging. Sermorelin Acetate, especially when combined with a conscientious lifestyle, can help you add years to year life while shaving years off of your old age.

We encourage you to call or contact the Conscious Evolution Institute today!


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 12 October 2013

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A new and landmark medical study suggests that a compound known as Resveratrol may be able to greatly aid us in the war against aging. There is even evidence that medicines derived from Resveratrol may one day allow us to live until we are 150. It is believed that inside the next 5 years, medical forms of Synthetic Resveratrol will likely reach the market, and help us extend longer and healthier lives.

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound, one of the key ingredients of red wine. There is significant evidence that Resveratrol and Synthetic Resveratrol derivatives have the ability to increase enzymatic activity of a vital protein known as SIRT1. Medical researchers have now come up with a strategy for synthesizing man-made Resveratrol for medical use, and the Pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline has commenced clinical medical trials of Resveratrol in order to attempt to treat patients who are afflicted with age-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

SIRT1 May be Ultimate Key to Longevity

Research regarding Resveratrol suggests that SIRT1 may be one of the primary keys to unlocking a longer and healthier life, and if the effects of this protein can be amplified, there is a great level of potential that manipulating this single human protein may have profound effects on human health and longevity, lengthening life and alleviating age-related disorders which impact quality of life as well.

What is SIRT1?

The scientific name for SIRT1 is NAD-Dependent Deacetylase Sirtuin-1. Informally, the protein is known as Sirtuin 1. This protein performs a number of restorative functions in the body and protects the cells and organs against negative stimuli. SIRT1 breaks down proteins that have the ability to hinder longevity and cause our bodies to respond negatively to stress. SIRT1 is one of the central biological players in stress reduction at the cellular level.

SIRT1 and other similar proteins help protect the cells from physiological breakdown when under duress. SIRT1 activation increases the rate at which DNA strands are repaired, which slows down the rate at which the cells break down. For this reason, studies regarding this protein display an immense amount of promise in preventing the natural atrophy of the cells that occur as a result of the aging process.

It has been proven that SIRT1 has the ability to help cells live longer while remaining fully functional, and current studies in human patients seek to examine the ultimate promise of Resveratrol and Resveratrol Derivatives in enhancing and lengthening life by stimulating these vital protective proteins.

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What is Resveratrol?

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound which is present in red wine and in the skin of grapes. Although Resveratrol is most recognized for its connection to red wine, the compound is also present in other berries such as cranberries, blueberries, and pomegranate. Peanuts have also been shown to contain a high level of Resveratrol Research shows that the compound has immense potential as a medical treatment, and that the protein acts as both an anti-inflammatory agent and as an antioxidant.

Although there is much evidence that supports the use of Resveratrol as a medical supplement, the amount of Resveratrol present in a glass of red wine is relatively low. Pharmaceutical companies such as GlaxoSmithKlein are devoting large amounts of time, money, and research in order to create synthetic forms of Resveratrol that are concentrated and can provide medical benefits that are much more pronounced and potentially life-changing.

Although studies have been limited in regard to Resveratrol so far, there is evidence that the protein may have a number of highly beneficial uses, including increasing exercise tolerance and boosting cognition. There is even evidence that Resveratrol and Resveratrol Derivatives may be able to safeguard the body against some of the devastating effects of Herpes and HIV.

117 Forms of Synthetic Resveratrol in Testing

There are 117 medications which are currently being tested in order to amplify the effects of SIRT1 through the manipulation of Resveratrol. Each of these drugs has the ability to effect SIRT1 activity in its own way, which means that there is an entire new class of longevity medications in the process of being designed and perfected which very well may have the capability to greatly reduce the risk of a number of vicious diseases including Type-2 Diabetes, Alzheimer's Disease, and Cancer.

Dr. David Sinclair is a professor of genetics at Harvard University and has spent a significant amount of his career studying SIRT1. He believes that this new group of drugs which amplify the activity of SIRT1 enzymes will have the ability to increase health and prevent disease in a number of significant ways. Each of these drugs will have a primary focus regarding the treatment of a particular disease, but in treating one particular disease, the medicines will also have the ability to prevent a number of other diseases at the same time that one primary disease is prevented. In doing so, these drugs will essentially have the unique ability to slow down the aging process.

Who is Dr. David Sinclair?

Dr. Sinclair is Co-Director of Paul F. Glenn Laboratory at Harvard Medical School. This laboratory is dedicated toward studying the effects of the aging process and methods by which humans can extend their lives. Dr. Sinclair is one of the preeminent minds regarding Anti-Aging in the world. Dr. Sinclair has studied Resveratrol and was the first scientist to discover that the compound has the ability to activate and increase the activity of SIRT1.

SIRT1 is a unique enzyme which is turned on by both exercise and responsible caloric restriction. Although these two mechanisms are the primary means by which the human body produces more of the enzyme, there are certain compounds such as Resveratrol which have the capability to medically enhance the activity of the protein.

Resveratrol Increases SIRT1 Enzyme Activity

Although there are a number of different compounds which amplify SIRT1 activity, Resveratrol appears to be the most common and profligate form of SIRT1 enhancer. This compound naturally develops during the crafting of red wine, but the strength of the amplification is limited. Scientists working with Resveratrol have the ultimate goal of tweaking the compound and making synthetic versions of it which are much more medically potent. Scientists are achieving this goal with aplomb.

Synthetic Resveratrol Shows Great Promise

Scientists, universities, and pharmaceutical companies have been studying Resveratrol for more than a decade, and until very recently, there has been debate as to the basic biological mechanisms which lead to the hypothetical medical benefits of the drug. Although we are just learning how Resveratrol and its derivatives act within the human body, there have been a number of clinical trials regarding the compound which suggest that Resveratrol provides a number of medical benefits in regard to age-related disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Type-2 Diabetes, Heart Failure, Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Sleep Disorders, Muscle Atrophy, Osteoporosis, Cataracts, Liver Disease, as well as inflammatory issues such as colitis, arthritis, and psoriasis.

Researcher Confident that Resveratrol will Quickly Becomes a Widely Used Therapy

Dr. Sinclair is confident that Resveratrol will be converted into a new, unique, and powerful form of medical treatment in a matter of years. He says that in the entire history of medical science, Resveratrol Derivatives are the first class of drugs ever discovered that have the ability to increase the rate at which an enzyme functions. GlaxoSmithKlein bought the rights to Resveratrol and its related compounds in 2008 in order to unlock further uses for the drug. The pharmaceutical company is confident that this class of drugs displays an incredible amount of medical promise for those with serious age-related ailments.

Since Resveratrol was first successfully synthesized, there have been more than 4000 derivatives designed which are far more potent than Resveratrol alone one hundred times stronger than the Resveratrol contained within a single glass of wine.

Resveratrol Will Likely First Be Used to Treat Diabetes

Dr. Sinclair believes that the first medical use of synthetic Resveratrol will be as a treatment for diabetes. Sinclair wrote an article in the publication Science, suggesting that Resveratrol has the ability to copy the benefits of exercise and diet without actually changing the weight of the patient.

Small trials of SERT1 activators have been performed in regard to Inflammatory Psoriasis and Type-2 Diabetes which have shown great promise. In the psoriasis study, researchers found that Synthetic Resveratrol has the ability to alleviate the redness and peeling associated with psoriasis. In the Diabetes trial, the drug had the ability to increase and optimize metabolism, providing useful health benefits.

Topical Resveratrol and Oral Resveratrol

These Synthetic Resveratrol Drugs are quite versatile and can be administered both topically and orally. Thus far, there have been no drugs of this class that have been designed to alleviate the effects of aging upon the skin, but there is currently one topical skin cream that features Resveratrol

Resveratrol as Preventative Medicine

Dr. Sinclair says that although each form of Resveratrol-based medication would only be prescribed for specific purposes in the near future, he believes that one day not too far away, medical forms of Resveratrol will begin to be prescribed as preventative medicine, not to treat any particular disease, but simply as a means of disease prevention and longevity.

Medically, Dr. Sinclair thinks that Resveratrol Derivatives will eventually be utilized in the same manner as Statin drugs. Statins are not used only to treat cardiovascular disease, but to prevent the disease as well. There is strong evidence that Resveratrol can be used to treat numerous disorders, but the maximum level of benefit very well may be in the medical issues that drugs like Resveratrol can prevent, making lives happier, longer, and less medically afflicted.

Animal Studies Show Promise of Resveratrol

In animal research studies, obese mice provided synthesized Resveratrol were found to be able to run twice as far as trim mice and also lived fifteen percent longer than their otherwise healthy counterparts.

Although Resveratrol shows great amounts of promise in regard to treating at-risk patients, Dr. Sinclair says that the next step in Resveratrol research is to see how the drug can benefit patients that are completely healthy. If Resveratrol is able to stave off diseases associated with the aging process, then Resveratrol Derivatives will likely quickly become a central player in any anti-aging health regimen.

Resveratrol Provides Evidence that Aging is a Disease

We've always had this idea that aging is something completely unavoidable, but as we learn more about human biology and physiology, we learn that the aging process is largely a series of symptoms which slowly cause our bodies to degrade and atrophy. If we can treat the symptoms of the aging process, we can surely extend our lives significantly, and also very soon. One day, research on drugs like Resveratrol and Human Growth Hormone may allow us to breach the age of 150, but to accomplish that long-term goal, we must continue funding anti-aging and regenerative research so we can lengthen and enhance the lives of everyone.

GlaxoSmithKlein Resveratrol Study May Change Our Perception of Aging

This GlaxoSmithKlein studies is one of the first of its kind to show how Concentrated Synthetic Resveratrol may be able to help us live longer than we ever thought possible. Although a lot of research still needs to be done, preliminary results in both animals and humans have been very promising.

We believe that in the near future, Synthetic Resveratrol will become another vital medical tool in the war against aging. Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy and Resveratrol Anti-Aging Therapy will be used in combination in order to maximize the health benefits of both treatments. HGH Injections have the ability to increase cellular rejuvenation, while Synthetic Resveratrol has the ability to protect the cells as a hyper-effective clinical strength antioxidant.

The Conscious Evolution Institute

The Conscious Evolution Institute is one of the best sources in America for high quality Anti-Aging Therapy. We specialize in treatments such as Human Growth Hormone HRT, Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Estrogen Replacement Therapy, and HCG Therapy. We also utilize supplements such as refined Resveratrol in order to maximize the benefits of the treatments we provide. Although Clinical-Strength Synthetic Resveratrol is still in clinical stages, natural Resveratrol is a safe and legal nutritional supplement.

If you are curious about Resveratrol or any form of Hormone Replacement Therapy, we encourage you to continue exploring HGH.tv for more information. Our website is intended as an informational resource in order to disseminate information about life-changing Anti-Aging Therapies. If you feel that you may be a potential candidate for any of the treatments that we provide, we encourage you to call or email us today.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 10 October 2018

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Dr. Edmund Chein :: Anti-Aging Specialist

One of the most important historical research studies regarding the safety and efficacy of Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy is the result of one individual Doctor Edmund Chein. Dr. Chein began his career trained as a health improvement specialist. In 1992 he was 42 years old and he felt that he was steadily declining as a human being. He was gaining weight more quickly than he had in his entire life and he was developing a growing pot belly. Talking to his own health physician, he learned that his own physical health was in danger. His cholesterol levels were abnormally high and his triglyceride levels were much higher than they should have been as well.

Poor Health Decisions and Natural Aging Put Longevity at Risk

Both he and his doctor knew that if he kept treading down the path he was currently taking his quality of life would quickly deteriorate. He knew that he had to change his life when he began experiencing chest pains. Part of him felt like he was too young to be at risk for a heart attack, but as a doctor, he knew that was not the case. His heart troubles led him to a cardiologist, who informed him that he was in grave dangerhis coronary artery was significantly blocked by cholesterol plaques and if the plaque broke off he could easily experience a potentially fatal heart attack. At once, Chein was advised to take medicines in order to control his cholesterol level.

Chein Confident in Hormone Replacement Therapy Approach

Although Chein understood the logic behind such a path, he made the decision to try a much less orthodox approach. As a specialist in physical rehabilitation and medicine, Dr. Chein had utilized Hormone Replacement Therapy for individuals who suffered from unique hormone deficiencies. As a result of Hormone Replacement Treatments, the patients he observed experienced massive benefits to their overall health, with little or no side-effects. He had been intrigued by the Human Growth Hormone Research performed by Dr. Rudman two years earlier and pored over the results with zeal, keeping them nearly memorized in the back of his mind.

HGH Most Promising Form of Hormone Replacement Therapy

There was increasing evidence that other hormones such as DHEA and Melatonin had the ability to alleviate the effects of aging, but nothing seemed to compete with the incredible promise of Human Growth Hormone. Dr. Rudman's study was one of the first of its kinda large scale analysis of the effects of Human Growth Hormone on Adult-HGH Deficiency. Dr. Chein was so confident in the potential of HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy that he made the decision to utilize the treatment himself.

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He was bold in his approachHe wanted to restore all of his primary hormone levels to those of a young man of twenty years old and measure the extent to which HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy could benefit he himself. In the back of his mind, he hoped that by restoring his proper hormone levels he could revert his physiology back to that of a 20 year old man. He felt that if he was physiologically optimized, that his cholesterol and triglyceride levels might normalize, preventing the need for other medications. If he alleviated the effects of aging with Human Growth Hormone, he felt that the medical threats of cardiovascular disease may actually go into remission, eradicating the chest pains that threatened his life.

Dr. Chein Begins Hormone Replacement Therapy

After he made the commitment to Hormone Replacement Therapy, he made an appointment with one of his local fellow physicians in order to diagnose a variety of different hormone levels within his body. After having his blood drawn and professionally tested, he learned that he suffered from multiple hormonal deficiencies, the most severe of which were Testosterone, Human Growth Hormone, DHEA, and Thyroid Hormone.

HGH Hormone Replacement Therapy Works

After having his deficiency diagnosed, he made the decision to restore his levels of these vital hormones to a level which would be normal for a healthy twenty year old, twenty two years younger than himself. Within the next 6 months, his health began to change dramatically. He no longer suffered from that anxiety-induced pain in his chest, and his triglyceride and cholesterol levels normalized, preventing his need for medications to preserve his cardiovascular system. In addition to this, and perhaps partially because, he also began to lose the weight that had accumulated around his paunch.

The doctor who prescribed Dr. Chein's medications was so impressed by the results, that he chose to utilize the hormone treatments as well. He also experienced the beneficial results of Hormone Replacement Therapy featuring Testosterone and Human Growth Hormone.

Hormone Replacement Therapy FAQ

What is DHEA?

DHEA is an intermediary form of sex hormone secreted by both males and females. DHEA is a precursor hormone which can be converted into both Testosterone and Estrogen by the human body. DHEA is primarily released by the adrenal glands. Users of DHEA claim that there are numerous potential benefits to the hormonal supplement. It is believed that DHEA can bolster the immune system, increase energy levels, improve cognition and memory, enhance muscle strength, and optimize adrenal gland function. DHEA may also have the ability to alleviate the symptoms of depression.

What Are the Symptoms of DHEA Deficiency?

There are a number of different potential symptoms associated with Low-DHEA Levels. These include loss of sex drive, anxiety, depression, persistent fatigue and exhaustion, dehydrated eyes, dry skin, brittle hair, sensitivity to audio stimuli, and changes in hair pattern as a result of hair thinning and hair loss.

What is Testosterone?

Testosterone is the primary male hormone, though it is produced in both the male and the female body. In males, Testosterone is known for inducing primary and secondary characteristics both before birth and during puberty. After puberty, Testosterone helps men retain their masculinity, in addition to preserving sexual and cognitive function. Testosterone is released by the Testes and Adrenal Gland in males, and in the Ovaries and Adrenal Gland in females. In both sexes, Testosterone is largely responsible for sexual desire, and Testosterone has other limited yet vital roles to play in female health.

What are the Symptoms of Testosterone Deficiency?

In Males In males, Testosterone Deficiency can hinder the body's ability to generate strong and well-defined muscles. In addition to this, Testosterone Deficiency is generally connected with excess levels of cortisol, which can cause high levels of stress and can lead to cardiovascular complications over time. Testosterone is vital for proper sexual function, and low levels of Testosterone can cause problems ranging from low libido to premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. Testosterone also plays a role in mood, and low testosterone levels can cause symptoms of dysthymia and depression.

In Females In women, Testosterone is tightly linked to female sex drive. When women do not have enough Testosterone, their desire for sex can plummet. Testosterone also plays an integral role in female sexual function, and without proper hormonal stimulation, a woman can find herself unprepared physically for sexual activity. In addition to this, there is evidence that Testosterone is linked to both bone health and mental health in female patients.

What is HGH?

Human Growth Hormone is the hormone responsible for general human development and maintenance. HGH is released at its highest levels during puberty, causing drastic changes in height during a period of only a few short years. HGH is released by both the male and female body, and although Testosterone and Estrogen are responsible for sexual differentiation, HGH is responsible for the physical growth of puberty. After puberty, our bodies secrete much less Human Growth Hormone, but it is still a vital hormone which preserves optimal function. After puberty, Human Growth Hormone primarily helps the body sustain and rebuild itself at the cellular level, effecting numerous, if not all, organ and cellular systems within the body.

What Are the Symptoms of HGH Deficiency?

There are a number of significant medical problems that can occur when HGH levels are deficient. Muscle mass starts to atrophy, leaving the muscles both aesthetically and functionally weaker. The skin becomes dehydrated and more prone to wrinkles, lines, and drooping. Over time, HGH Deficiency can lead to osteoporosis and general weakening of the bones. Human Growth Hormone has been linked with general well being, and HGH Deficiency can lead to symptoms of depression and anxiety.

What is Thyroid Hormone?

The Thyroid is the biggest endocrine gland in the human body. It is located in the neck just under the Adam's apple in males and the equivalent area in females. Thyroid Hormone is the primary hormone released by this gland. Thyroid Hormone is responsible for controlling hunger. A low level of Thyroid Hormone is diagnosed as Hypothyroidism. A high level of the hormone is diagnosed as Hyperthyroidism.

What are the Symptoms of Thyroid Hormone Deficiency?

Thyroid Hormone Deficiency prevents the body from feeling properly sated by meals, causing patients to become overweight, with a severity dependent upon the level of deficiency. Although weight gain is the primary symptom of Thyroid Hormone Deficiency, this disorder can also lead to decreased sex drive, memory loss, weakness, fatigue, constipation, and depression, among other medical issues. The human body constantly resides in a state of amplified hunger as a result of deficiency, causing the body to function as though hunger cessation is the most important goal, taxing other systems of the body as a result.

What is the Conscious Evolution Institute?

The purpose of this website is to provide a wide array of information regarding the viability of Hormone Treatments such as Human Growth Hormone HRT and Testosterone HRT as longevity medications meant to alleviate Age-Induced Hormone Deficiency. There are many paths to health, and our goal is to encourage you to become more proactive in preserving your own personal health, regardless of your current medical condition.

There are many roads to good health, whether it be through better diet, exercise, of Hormone Replacement Therapy. If you feel that you may be a candidate for Hormone Replacement Therapy, we encourage you to contact the Conscious Evolution Institute today. We are highly trained in rejuvenative therapies featuring Human Growth Hormone, Testosterone, and numerous other vital hormones and hormone derivatives. We promise to serve you promptly and with care. We look forward to hearing from you!


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 10 October 2017

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HGH Keywords: Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH Decline, Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH Deficiency,

Some theories on Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH Decline in Humans

HGH decreases significantly after the age of about 25 to 30 and again during the age range of 35 to 45. Scientists do not know the exact reason why persons over the age 25 to 30, and 35 to 45 tend to incur such a significant decrease in Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland, but the result of decreased Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH is thought to cause the symptoms of ageing, andropause or disease. The decrease in HGH is considered to be deficiency or a variable in the human aging equation, this has been stated by many doctors practicing age management and hormone replacement therapy.

Pituitary Gland Functional Later in Life

Some medical research has revealed that the aging pituitary somatotroph cells can still secrete as much growth hormone as the young somatotrophs cells if they are properly and adequately stimulated. As a result some researchers have come up with several theories regarding human aging resulting from Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH related deficiency.

Regardless of natural deficiencies, adults over the age of 30 can use Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH or Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Replacement Therapy to replace deficient levels.

Click below to read about more research concerning the reduction of Doctor Prescribed Real Injectable HGH as we age.

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Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 24 August 2020

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Your Real Injectable HGH Status can only be confirmed by doing blood tests.

Are you experiencing the opposite of what higher levels of Real Injectable Human Growth Hormone reportedly promotes? If so you might want to have your Real Injectable HGH levels tested. Children with growth hormone deficiency have experienced the negative side effects of aging.

Results of restoring (or having) Real Injectable HGH secretion at / to youthful levels:

Higher energy levels
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Improved cholesterol profile, with higher HDL and lower LDL
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Hair re-growth after thinning or partial loss due to aging
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Elimination of cellulite
Increased exercise performance
Sharper vision after decline requiring reading glasses
Mood elevation
Better kidney function
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Re-growth of heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and other organs that shrink with age
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Norditropin Pen System is activated with first usage and can be used for three weeks without any refrigeration, Pen will last 4 weeks with refrigeration after which potency might begin to degrade. Pens not being used must be refrigerated.


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Omnitrope Comes with multi-dosage vials which you mix with Bacteriostatic water to activate. Refrigeration between usage is always required. Mixed and unmixed vials must be refrigerated.


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Tev Tropin comes with multi-dosage vials which you mix with bacteriostatic water to activate. Refrigeration between usage is always required. Mixed and unmixed vials must be refrigerated.

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Correctly performed testosterone therapy can be your ticket to health.

Three sided solution: Testosterone + HCG + Arimidex

If your doctor only prescribes testosterone by itself, you will probably have a rough ride. The tendency is for you to feel great the first couple months, while you increase testosterone levels, followed by a slow deterioration, once your estrogen creeps up.

High estrogen negates a lot of the positives from testosterone therapy, resulting in the same symptoms of low testosterone you had in the first place!

The solution is to add a drug called Arimidex. It's called an aromatase inhibitor, which essentially blocks the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. It has the effect of increasing testosterone levels, while keeping your estrogen low.

Once you have your testosterone and estrogen solved, it's time to stop the next inevitable decline? Shrinking testicles.

This is where HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) comes in. It prevents both infertility and testicle shrinkage. Your testicles shrink because your body thinks it doesn't need to make testosterone anymore.

For some, small testicles may seem like just a cosmetic problem. But HGC does more than increase testicle size, it also increases adrenal function, which can have positive effects on well-being, libido, and energy.

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