Zip Code: 80819 El Paso Green Mountain Falls 19.3 Miles
Zip Code: 80133 El Paso Palmer Lake 19.4 Miles
Zip Code: 80933 El Paso Colorado Springs 19.63 Miles
Zip Code: 80135 Douglas Sedalia 19.94 Miles
Zip Code: 80813 Teller Cripple Creek 20.87 Miles
Zip Code: 80809 El Paso Cascade 21.25 Miles
Zip Code: 80425 Jefferson Buffalo Creek 21.86 Miles
Zip Code: 80132 El Paso Monument 22.86 Miles
Zip Code: 80820 Park Guffey 23.67 Miles
Zip Code: 80449 Park Hartsel 24.09 Miles
Zip Code: 80841 El Paso U S A F Academy 24.9 Miles
Zip Code: 80840 El Paso U S A F Academy 24.92 Miles
Zip Code: 80118 Douglas Larkspur 25.3 Miles
Zip Code: 80470 Jefferson Pine 25.88 Miles
Zip Code: 80829 El Paso Manitou Springs 26.16 Miles
Zip Code: 80432 Park Como 26.83 Miles
Zip Code: 80949 El Paso Colorado Springs 27.03 Miles
Zip Code: 80919 El Paso Colorado Springs 27.21 Miles
Zip Code: 80921 El Paso Colorado Springs 27.39 Miles
Zip Code: 80475 Park Shawnee 27.68 Miles
Zip Code: 80904 El Paso Colorado Springs 28.09 Miles
Zip Code: 80448 Park Grant 28.67 Miles
Zip Code: 80934 El Paso Colorado Springs 29.11 Miles
Zip Code: 80860 Teller Victor 29.6 Miles
Zip Code: 80995 El Paso Colorado Springs 29.63 Miles
Zip Code: 80907 El Paso Colorado Springs 29.78 Miles
Zip Code: 80456 Park Jefferson 29.84 Miles
Zip Code: 80997 El Paso Colorado Springs 30.16 Miles
Zip Code: 80433 Jefferson Conifer 30.3 Miles
Zip Code: 80905 El Paso Colorado Springs 30.67 Miles
Zip Code: 80421 Park Bailey 30.82 Miles
Zip Code: 80946 El Paso Colorado Springs 30.87 Miles
Zip Code: 80942 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.35 Miles
Zip Code: 80943 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.39 Miles
Zip Code: 80947 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.5 Miles
Zip Code: 80944 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.51 Miles
Zip Code: 80901 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.52 Miles
Zip Code: 80912 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.55 Miles
Zip Code: 80935 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.65 Miles
Zip Code: 80920 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.66 Miles
Zip Code: 80918 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.71 Miles
Zip Code: 80906 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.8 Miles
Zip Code: 80903 El Paso Colorado Springs 31.81 Miles
Zip Code: 80937 El Paso Colorado Springs 32.16 Miles
Zip Code: 80960 El Paso Colorado Springs 32.53 Miles
Zip Code: 80950 El Paso Colorado Springs 32.58 Miles
Zip Code: 80104 Douglas Castle Rock 32.59 Miles
Zip Code: 80945 El Paso Colorado Springs 32.64 Miles
Zip Code: 80936 El Paso Colorado Springs 32.76 Miles
Zip Code: 80962 El Paso Colorado Springs 32.8 Miles
Zip Code: 80932 El Paso Colorado Springs 33.02 Miles
Zip Code: 80909 El Paso Colorado Springs 33.08 Miles
Zip Code: 80131 Douglas Louviers 33.51 Miles
Zip Code: 80917 El Paso Colorado Springs 33.59 Miles
Zip Code: 80127 Jefferson Littleton 33.71 Miles
Zip Code: 80941 El Paso Colorado Springs 33.76 Miles
Zip Code: 80125 Douglas Littleton 33.77 Miles
Zip Code: 80910 El Paso Colorado Springs 34.3 Miles
Zip Code: 80908 El Paso Colorado Springs 34.34 Miles
Zip Code: 80109 Douglas Castle Rock 34.9 Miles
Zip Code: 80940 El Paso Colorado Springs 35.1 Miles
Zip Code: 80440 Park Fairplay 35.31 Miles
Zip Code: 80922 El Paso Colorado Springs 35.43 Miles
Zip Code: 80970 El Paso Colorado Springs 36.01 Miles
Zip Code: 80926 El Paso Colorado Springs 36.18 Miles
Zip Code: 80116 Douglas Franktown 36.52 Miles
Zip Code: 80108 Douglas Castle Rock 36.55 Miles
Zip Code: 81212 Fremont Canon City 36.55 Miles
Zip Code: 80915 El Paso Colorado Springs 37.23 Miles
Zip Code: 80129 Douglas Littleton 37.41 Miles
Zip Code: 80916 El Paso Colorado Springs 37.5 Miles
Zip Code: 80465 Jefferson Morrison 37.63 Miles
Zip Code: 80914 El Paso Colorado Springs 37.86 Miles
Zip Code: 80931 El Paso Colorado Springs 38.5 Miles
Zip Code: 80126 Douglas Littleton 38.99 Miles
Zip Code: 80124 Douglas Littleton 39.04 Miles
Zip Code: 80128 Jefferson Littleton 39.18 Miles
Zip Code: 80162 Jefferson Littleton 39.56 Miles
Zip Code: 80123 Jefferson Littleton 39.64 Miles
Zip Code: 80437 Jefferson Evergreen 39.65 Miles
Zip Code: 80911 El Paso Colorado Springs 39.77 Miles
Zip Code: 80454 Jefferson Indian Hills 39.84 Miles
Zip Code: 80130 Douglas Littleton 40.17 Miles
Zip Code: 80166 Arapahoe Littleton 40.66 Miles
Zip Code: 80120 Arapahoe Littleton 40.7 Miles
Zip Code: 80165 Arapahoe Littleton 40.73 Miles
Zip Code: 80457 Jefferson Kittredge 40.73 Miles
Zip Code: 80439 Jefferson Evergreen 40.75 Miles
Zip Code: 80163 Douglas Littleton 40.86 Miles
Zip Code: 80977 El Paso Colorado Springs 40.87 Miles
Zip Code: 80929 El Paso Colorado Springs 41.15 Miles
Zip Code: 80122 Arapahoe Littleton 41.17 Miles
Zip Code: 80913 El Paso Colorado Springs 41.6 Miles
Zip Code: 80160 Arapahoe Littleton 41.71 Miles
Zip Code: 80161 Arapahoe Littleton 41.88 Miles
Zip Code: 81240 Fremont Penrose 41.9 Miles
Zip Code: 80106 El Paso Elbert 42 Miles
Zip Code: 80453 Jefferson Idledale 42.12 Miles
Zip Code: 80235 Jefferson Denver 42.45 Miles
Zip Code: 80121 Arapahoe Littleton 43.01 Miles
Zip Code: 80925 El Paso Colorado Springs 43.12 Miles
Zip Code: 80227 Jefferson Denver 43.13 Miles
Zip Code: 80112 Arapahoe Englewood 43.54 Miles
Zip Code: 80236 Denver Denver 43.72 Miles
Zip Code: 80110 Arapahoe Englewood 44 Miles
Zip Code: 80138 Douglas Parker 44.11 Miles
Zip Code: 80155 Arapahoe Englewood 44.13 Miles
Zip Code: 80228 Jefferson Denver 44.38 Miles
Zip Code: 80151 Arapahoe Englewood 44.4 Miles
Zip Code: 80150 Arapahoe Englewood 44.4 Miles
Zip Code: 80831 El Paso Peyton 44.49 Miles
Zip Code: 80113 Arapahoe Englewood 44.87 Miles
Zip Code: 80420 Park Alma 44.9 Miles
Zip Code: 80134 Douglas Parker 45.15 Miles
Zip Code: 80232 Jefferson Denver 45.29 Miles
Zip Code: 80111 Arapahoe Englewood 45.45 Miles
Zip Code: 80401 Jefferson Golden 45.58 Miles
Zip Code: 80201 Denver Denver 45.73 Miles
Zip Code: 81215 Fremont Canon City 45.99 Miles
Zip Code: 80237 Denver Denver 46.3 Miles
Zip Code: 80817 El Paso Fountain 46.4 Miles
Zip Code: 80225 Jefferson Denver 46.43 Miles
Zip Code: 81228 Chaffee Granite 46.47 Miles
Zip Code: 81233 Fremont Howard 46.5 Miles
Zip Code: 80219 Denver Denver 46.62 Miles
Zip Code: 80226 Jefferson Denver 46.75 Miles
Zip Code: 80208 Denver Denver 47 Miles
Zip Code: 80210 Denver Denver 47.01 Miles
Zip Code: 80419 Jefferson Golden 47.29 Miles
Zip Code: 80223 Denver Denver 47.29 Miles
Zip Code: 80261 Denver Denver 47.36 Miles
Zip Code: 80452 Clear Creek Idaho Springs 47.45 Miles
Zip Code: 80250 Denver Denver 47.54 Miles
Zip Code: 80243 Denver Denver 47.61 Miles
Zip Code: 81290 Fremont Florence 47.65 Miles
Zip Code: 80107 Elbert Elizabeth 47.69 Miles
Zip Code: 80930 El Paso Colorado Springs 47.72 Miles
Zip Code: 80222 Denver Denver 47.94 Miles
Zip Code: 80246 Denver Denver 48.05 Miles
Zip Code: 80424 Summit Breckenridge 48.16 Miles
Zip Code: 80015 Arapahoe Aurora 48.41 Miles
Zip Code: 80402 Jefferson Golden 48.47 Miles
Zip Code: 80209 Denver Denver 48.69 Miles
Zip Code: 80215 Jefferson Denver 48.77 Miles
Zip Code: 81244 Fremont Rockvale 48.79 Miles
Zip Code: 80224 Denver Denver 48.82 Miles
Zip Code: 80251 Denver Denver 48.82 Miles
Zip Code: 80444 Clear Creek Georgetown 48.86 Miles
Zip Code: 80476 Clear Creek Silver Plume 48.96 Miles
Zip Code: 80231 Denver Denver 49 Miles
Zip Code: 80044 Arapahoe Aurora 49.08 Miles
Zip Code: 80014 Arapahoe Aurora 49.2 Miles
Zip Code: 81223 Fremont Cotopaxi 49.3 Miles
Zip Code: 80214 Jefferson Denver 49.32 Miles
Zip Code: 81221 Fremont Coal Creek 49.41 Miles
Zip Code: 81211 Chaffee Buena Vista 49.45 Miles
Zip Code: 80204 Denver Denver 49.47 Miles
Zip Code: 80273 Denver Denver 49.49 Miles
Zip Code: 80203 Denver Denver 49.98 Miles
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cities in Colorado
the largest city in the state of Colorado, as well as its capital.
Denver is often referred to as The Mile-High City, because it is the
highest-altitude capital in the United States, resting at over 5,000
feet. Downtown Denver is located along the South Platte River and
the home of the Denver Broncos of the NFL and the Colorado Rockies of
the MLB. Denver has one of the largest economies in the United
States, and is a major shipping route for cross country rail and
trucking. Denver is a great city for restaurant start-ups, and is the
home of Chipotle, Qdoba, and Quizno's just to name a few. Denver also
has large High-Tech and mining presensces.
Springs is the second largest city in Colorado, and is located in the
east-central portion of the state. Colorado Springs is located even
higher in the Rocky Mountains than Denver, resting at over 6,000
feet. The city is also located near the base of one of the most
famous mountains in the United States: Pike's Peak. Colorado Springs
is considered one of the best cities to live in the country by
Outside and Money Magazine. Colorado Springs is home to the United
States Air Force Academy.
the third largest city in Colorado, and is located immediately east
and adjacent to Denver. Aurora was first founded as Fletcher in 1891,
and became Aurora in 1929. The largest employer in the city is
Buckley Air Force Base, and the largest private employers are The
Children's Hospital of Aurora and Raytheon. The city is also known
for its beautiful parks, including Cherry Creek State Park and the
Morrison Nature Center.
Collins is the fourth most populated city in the state of Colorado,
and is located in the north-central area of the state. Fort Collins
was originally a military base in the 19th century, but
today, it is known as the home of the Colorado State Rams. The city
has a significant amount of high tech industry, and its largest
private employer is Hewlett Packard.
Colorado is the fifth most populated city in the state, and is a
western suburb of Denver. Lakewood has been recognized as a quality
place to live, and in 2011, was registered as an All-American city.
The largest public employer in Lakewood is the Denver Federal Center,
and the largest private employer is Terumo, a medical manufacturing
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Colorado (i/kɒləˈrædoʊ/, or /kɒləˈrɑːdoʊ/) is a U.S. state encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States. Colorado is the 8th most extensive and the 22nd most populous of the 50 United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,355,866 on July 1, 2014, an increase of 6.50% since the 2010 United States Census.
The state was named for the Colorado River, which Spanish travelers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy (Spanish: colorado) silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state 28 days after the centennial of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, and Arizona to the southwest, at the Four Corners. Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, forests, high plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers, and desert lands.
Denver is the capital and the most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are properly known as "Coloradans", although the archaic term "Coloradoan" is still in use.
Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, ranging from alpine mountains, arid plains and deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons, sandstone and granite rock formations, rivers, lakes, and lush forests. The borders of Colorado were originally defined to be lines of latitude and longitude, making its shape a latitude-longitude* quadrangle which stretches from 37°N to 41°N latitude and from 102°03'W to 109°03'W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian). Colorado, Wyoming and Utah are the only states which have boundaries defined solely by lines of latitude and longitude
The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet (4,401.2 m) elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet (1,011 m) elevation. This point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia.
A little less than one half of the area of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet (1,020 to 2,290 m). The Colorado plains are usually thought of as prairies, but actually they have many patches of deciduous forests, buttes, and canyons, much like the high plains in New Mexico as well. Eastern Colorado is presently mainly covered in farmland, along with small farming villages and towns. Precipitation is fair, averaging from 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 mm) annually. Corn, wheat, hay, soybeans, and oats are all typical crops, and most of the villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator. As well as the farming of crops, Eastern Colorado has a good deal of livestock raising, such as at cattle ranches and hog farms and irrigation water is available from the South Platte, the Arkansas River, and a few other streams, and also from subterranean sources, including artesian wells. However, heavy use of ground water from wells for irrigation has caused underground water reserves to decline.
Most of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado. The only other significant population centers are at Grand Junction and Durango in western and southwestern Colorado, respectively.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. Drainage water west of the Continental Divide flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California.
Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large so-called "parks" or high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado. The North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming and Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, which is drained by the Colorado River. The South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River.
In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located. The valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, and consists of large desert lands that eventually run into the mountains. The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the San Luis Valley lies the Wet Mountain Valley. These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande Rift, a major geological formation of the Rocky Mountains, and its branches.
To the west of the Great Plains of Colorado rises the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Notable peaks of the Rocky Mountains include Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg, in southern Colorado. This area drains to the east and the southeast, ultimately either via the Mississippi River or the Rio Grande into the Gulf of Mexico.
The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain about 53 peaks that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher in elevation above sea level, known as fourteeners. These mountains are largely covered with trees such as conifers and aspens up to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,140 feet (3,700 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado. Above this only alpine vegetation grows. Only small parts of the Colorado Rockies are snow-covered year round.
Much of the alpine snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few snowcapped peaks and a few small glaciers. The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado. Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains. The 30 highest major summits of the Rocky Mountains of North America all lie within the state.
The Western Slope of Colorado is drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries (primarily the Green River and the San Juan River), or by evaporation in its arid areas. Prominent in the southwestern area of the Western Slope is the Grand Mesa and the high San Juan Mountains, a rugged mountain range, and to the west of the San Juan Mountains, the Colorado Plateau, a high arid region that borders Southern Utah. The Colorado River flows through Glenwood Canyon and then through an arid valley made up of desert from Rifle to Parachute, through the desert canyon of De Beque Canyon, and into the arid desert of Grand Valley, of which the city of Grand Junction is located.
The city of Grand Junction, Colorado, is the largest city on the Western Slope, Grand Junction and Durango are the only major centers of television broadcasting west of the Continental Divide in Colorado. Most mountain resort communities publish daily newspapers. Higher education on the Western Slope can be found at Colorado Mesa University in Grand Junction, Western State College of Colorado in Gunnison, Fort Lewis College in Durango and Colorado Mountain College in Glenwood Springs and Steamboat Springs.
Grand Junction is located along Interstate 70, the only major highway of Western Colorado. Grand Junction is also along the major railroad of the Western Slope, the Union Pacific, which also provides the tracks for Amtrak's California Zephyr passenger train, which crosses the Rocky Mountains between Denver and Grand Junction via a route on which there are no continuous highways.
To the southeast of Grand Junction is the Grand Mesa, said to be the world's largest flat-topped mountain. Other towns of the Western Slope include Glenwood Springs with its resort hot springs, and the ski resorts of Aspen, Breckenridge, Vail, Crested Butte, Steamboat Springs, and Telluride.
The northwestern corner of Colorado is a sparsely populated region, and it contains part of the noted Dinosaur National Monument, which is not only a paleontological area, but is also a scenic area of rocky hills, canyons, arid desert, and streambeads. Here, the Green River briefly crosses over into Colorado.
From west to east, the land of Colorado consists of desert lands, desert plateaus, alpine mountains, National Forests, relatively flat grasslands, scattered forests, buttes, and canyons in the western edge of the Great Plains. The famous Pikes Peak is located just west of Colorado Springs. Its isolated peak is visible from nearly the Kansas border on clear days, and also far to the north and the south.
The desert lands in Colorado are located in and around areas such as, the Pueblo, Canon City, Florence, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Cortez, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Ute Mountain, Delta, Grand Junction, Colorado National Monument, and other areas surrounding the Uncompahgre Plateau and Uncompahgre National Forest.
Colorado is one of four states in the United States that share a common geographic point the Four Corners together with Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. At this intersection, it is possible to stand in four states at once.
The climate of Colorado is more complex than states outside of the Mountain States region. Unlike most other states, southern Colorado is not always warmer than northern Colorado. Most of Colorado is made up of mountains, foothills, high plains, and desert lands. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate.
As a general rule, with an increase in elevation comes a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. Northeast, east, and southeast Colorado are mostly the high plains, while Northern Colorado is a mix of high plains, foothills, and mountains. Northwest and west Colorado are predominantly mountainous, with some desert lands mixed in. Southwest and southern Colorado are a complex mixture of desert and mountain areas.
The climate of the Eastern Plains is semiarid (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with low humidity and moderate precipitation, usually from 15 to 25 in (380 to 640 mm) annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool, clear nights, which give this area a great average diurnal temperature range. The difference between the highs of the days and the lows of the nights can be considerable as warmth dissipates to the space during clear nights, the heat radiation not being trapped by clouds.
In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and often 100 °F (38 °C). On the plains, the winter lows usually range from 25 to −10 °F (−4 to −23 °C). About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which can be severe, and from major snowstorms that occur in the winter and early spring. Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold.
In much of the region, March is the snowiest month. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall. The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of 70 °F (21 °C) or higher in the winter. The average July temperature is 55 °F (13 °C) in the morning and 90 °F (32 °C) in the afternoon. The average January temperature is 1 °F (−8 °C) in the morning and 48 °F (9 °C) in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40 °F (4 °C).
West of the plains and foothills, the weather of Colorado is much less uniform. Even places a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography of the area. Most valleys have a semi-arid climate, which becomes an alpine climate at higher elevations. Humid microclimates also exist in some areas. Generally, the wettest season in western Colorado is winter while June is the driest month.
The mountains have mild summers with many days of high temperatures between 60 and 85 °F (16 and 29 °C), although thunderstorms can cause sudden but brief drops in temperature. The winters bring abundant, powdery snowfall to the mountains with plenty of sunshine between major storms. The western slope has high summer temperatures similar to those found on the plains, while the winters tend to be slightly cooler due to the lack of warming winds common to the plains and Front Range. Other areas in the west have their own unique climate.
Extreme weather changes are common in Colorado, although the majority of extreme weather occurs in the least populated areas of the state. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental Divide in the spring and summer, yet are usually brief. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the divide and in the northwest part of the state. The Eastern Plains have had some of the biggest hail storms in North America.
The Eastern Plains are part of the extreme western portion of Tornado Alley; some damaging tornadoes in the Eastern Plains include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado, which devastated the small town. The plains are also susceptible to occasional floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather. Denver's record in 1901 for the number of consecutive days above 90 °F (32 °C) was broken during the summer of 2008. The new record of 24 consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week.
Much of Colorado is a very dry state averaging only 17 in (430 mm) of precipitation per year statewide and rarely experiences a time when some portion of the state is not in some degree of drought. The lack of precipitation contributes to the severity of wildfires in the state, such as the Hayman Fire, one of the largest wildfires in American history, and the Fourmile Canyon Fire of 2010, which until the Waldo Canyon Fire of June 2012, and the Black Forest Fire about a year later, was the most destructive wildfire in Colorado's recorded history.
However, some of the mountainous regions of Colorado receive a huge amount of moisture from winter snowfalls. The spring melts of these snows often cause great waterflows in the Yampa River, the Colorado River, the Rio Grande, the Arkansas River, Cherry Creek, the North Platte River, and the South Platte River.
Water flowing out of the Colorado Rocky Mountains is a very significant source of water for the farms, towns, and cities of the southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada, as well as the Midwest, such as Nebraska and Kansas, and the southern states of Oklahoma and Texas. A significant amount of water is also diverted for use in California; occasionally (formerly naturally and consistently), the flow of water reaches northern Mexico.
The highest ambient air temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 118 °F (48 °C) on July 11, 1888, at Bennett. The lowest air temperature was −61 °F (−52 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.
Despite its mountainous terrain, Colorado is relatively quiescent seismically. The U.S. National Earthquake Information Center is located in Golden.
On August 22, 2011, a 5.3 magnitude earthquake occurred nine miles WSW of the city of Trinidad. No casualties and only small damage was reported. It was the second largest earthquake in Colorado. A magnitude 5.7 earthquake was recorded in 1973.
The region that is today the state of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years. The Lindenmeier Site in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BC to 3000 BC. The eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route that was important to the spread of early peoples throughout the Americas. The Ancient Pueblo peoples lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado Plateau. The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Western Rocky Mountains, even as far east as the Front Range of present day. The Apache and the Comanche also inhabited Eastern and Southeastern parts of the state. At times, the Arapaho Nation and the Cheyenne Nation moved west to hunt across the High Plains.
The U.S. acquired a territorial claim to the eastern Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. This U.S. claim conflicted with the claim by Spain to the upper Arkansas River Basin as the exclusive trading zone of its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico. In 1806, Zebulon Pike led a U.S. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region. Colonel Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalrymen in the San Luis Valley the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and expelled from Mexico the following July.
The U.S. relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River and south of 42nd parallel north and west of the 100th meridian west as part of its purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The treaty took effect February 22, 1821. Having settled its border with Spain, the U.S. admitted the southeastern portion of the Territory of Missouri to the Union as the state of Missouri on August 10, 1821. The remainder of Missouri Territory, including what would become northeastern Colorado, became unorganized territory, and remained so for 33 years over the question of slavery. After 11 years of war, Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba signed on August 24, 1821. Mexico eventually ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1831. The Texian Revolt of 1835–1836 fomented a dispute between the U.S. and Mexico which eventually erupted into the Mexican-American War in 1846. Mexico surrendered its northern territory to the U.S. with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the conclusion of the war in 1848.
Most American settlers traveling overland west to the Oregon Country, namely the new goldfields of California, or the new Mormon settlements of the State of Deseret in the Salt Lake Valley, avoided the rugged Southern Rocky Mountains, and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River to South Pass (Wyoming), the lowest crossing of the Continental Divide between the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Central Rocky Mountains. In 1849, the Mormons of the Salt Lake Valley organized the extralegal State of Deseret, claiming the entire Great Basin and all lands drained by the rivers Green, Grand, and Colorado. The federal government of the U.S. flatly refused to recognize the new Mormon government, because it was theocratic and sanctioned plural marriage. Instead, the Compromise of 1850 divided the Mexican Cession and the northwestern claims of Texas into a new state and two new territories, the state of California, the Territory of New Mexico, and the Territory of Utah. On April 9, 1851, Mexican American settlers from the area of Taos settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, later to become Colorado's first permanent Euro-American settlement.
In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas persuaded the U.S. Congress to divide the unorganized territory east of the Continental Divide into two new organized territories, the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska, and an unorganized southern region known as the Indian territory. Each new territory was to decide the fate of slavery within its boundaries, but this compromise merely served to fuel animosity between free soil and pro-slavery factions.
The gold seekers organized the Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson on August 24, 1859, but this new territory failed to secure approval from the Congress of the United States embroiled in the debate over slavery. The election of Abraham Lincoln for the President of the United States on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of nine southern slave states and the threat of civil war among the states. Seeking to augment the political power of the Union states, the Republican Party dominated Congress quickly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas into the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the Kansas Territory, and its gold-mining areas, as unorganized territory.
Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an Act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado. The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged today. The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the territory. In 1776, Spanish priest Silvestre Vélez de Escalante recorded that Native Americans in the area knew the river as el Rio Colorado for the red-brown silt that the river carried from the mountains. In 1859, a U.S. Army topographic expedition led by Captain John Macomb located the confluence of the Green River with the Grand River in what is now Canyonlands National Park in Utah. The Macomb party designated the confluence as the source of the Colorado River.
On April 12, 1861, South Carolina artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter to start the American Civil War. While many gold seekers held sympathies for the Confederacy, the vast majority remained fiercely loyal to the Union cause.
In 1862, a force of Texas cavalry invaded the Territory of New Mexico and captured Santa Fe on March 10. The object of this Western Campaign was to seize or disrupt the gold fields of Colorado and California and to seize ports on the Pacific Ocean for the Confederacy. A hastily organized force of Colorado volunteers force-marched from Denver City, Colorado Territory, to Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory, in an attempt to block the Texans. On March 28, the Coloradans and local New Mexico volunteers stopped the Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, destroyed their cannon and supply wagons, and ran off 500 of their horses and mules. The Texans were forced to retreat to Santa Fe. Having lost the supplies for their campaign and finding little support in New Mexico, the Texans abandoned Santa Fe and returned to San Antonio in defeat. The Confederacy made no further attempts to seize the Southwestern United States.
In 1864, Territorial Governor John Evans appointed the Reverend John Chivington as Colonel of the Colorado Volunteers with orders to protect white settlers from Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors who were accused of stealing cattle. Colonel Chivington ordered his men to attack a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped along Sand Creek. Chivington reported that his troops killed more than 500 warriors. The militia returned to Denver City in triumph, but several officers reported that the so-called battle was a blatant massacre of Indians at peace, that most of the dead were women and children, and that bodies of the dead had been hideously mutilated and desecrated. Three U.S. Army inquiries condemned the action, and incoming President Andrew Johnson asked Governor Evans for his resignation, but none of the perpetrators was ever punished. This event is now known as the Sand Creek massacre.
In the midst and aftermath of Civil War, many discouraged prospectors returned to their homes, but a few stayed and developed mines, mills, farms, ranches, roads, and towns in Colorado Territory. On September 14, 1864, James Huff discovered silver near Argentine Pass, the first of many silver strikes. In 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad laid its tracks west to Weir, now Julesburg, in the northeast corner of the Territory. The Union Pacific linked up with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Denver Pacific Railway reached Denver in June the following year, and the Kansas Pacific arrived two months later to forge the second line across the continent. In 1872, rich veins of silver were discovered in the San Juan Mountains on the Ute Indian reservation in southwestern Colorado. The Ute people were removed from the San Juans the following year.
The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state. On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".
The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878 triggered the Colorado Silver Boom. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 invigorated silver mining, and Colorado's last, but greatest, gold strike at Cripple Creek a few months later lured a new generation of gold seekers. Colorado women were granted the right to vote beginning on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the second state to grant universal suffrage and the first one by a popular vote (of Colorado men). The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado, but the state slowly and steadily recovered.
Colorado became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party met in Denver in 1908. By the U.S. Census in 1930, the population of Colorado first exceeded one million residents. Colorado suffered greatly through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado's fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Colorado exceeded five million in 2009.
Three warships of the U.S. Navy have been named the USS Colorado. The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado River. The later two ships were named in honor of the state, including the battleship USS Colorado which served in World War II in the Pacific beginning in 1941. At the time of the Attack on Pearl Harbor, this USS Colorado was located at the naval base in San Diego, Calif. and hence went unscathed.
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,355,866 on July 1, 2014, a 6.5% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Colorado's most populous city, and capital, is Denver. The Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area with an estimated 2013 population of 3,277,309, has 60% of the state's residents.
The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area. The state's fastest-growing counties are Douglas and Weld. The center of population of Colorado is located just north of the village of Critchell in Jefferson County.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Colorado had a population of 5,029,196. Racial composition of the state's population was:
People of Hispanic and Latino American (of any race made) heritage, made up 20.7% of the population. According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Mexican (18%), Irish (12%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry are especially numerous in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties) and Eastern parts/High Plains.
Colorado has a high proportion of Hispanic, mostly Mexican-American, citizens in Metropolitan Denver, Colorado Springs, as well as the smaller cities of Greeley and Pueblo, and elsewhere. Colorado is well known for its strong Latino culture and presence. Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of the early Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Colorado's population as 8.2% Hispanic and 90.3% non-Hispanic white. The Hispanic population of Colorado has continued to grow quickly over the past decades. By 2012, Hispanics made up 21% of Colorado's population, and Non-Hispanic Whites made up 69%.
The 2000 United States Census found that 10.5% of people aged five and over in Colorado speak only Spanish at home, with the 2009 estimate being roughly 14%. Colorado also has a large immigration presence all throughout the state, which has led to Colorado cities being referred to as "Sanctuary Cities" for illegal immigrants as well. Colorado has the 4th highest percentage of undocumented people in the U.S., only behind Nevada, Arizona, California, and tied with Texas. An estimated 5.5–6.0% of the state's population is composed of illegal immigrants. Also, over 20% of the state's prisoners are undocumented inmates. Colorado, like New Mexico, is very rich in archaic Spanish idioms.
Colorado also has some large African-American communities located in Denver, in the neighborhoods of Montbello, Five Points, Whittier, and many other East Denver areas. A relatively large population of African Americans are also found in Colorado Springs on the east and southeast side of the city. The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Mongolian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian and Japanese descent. The highest population of Asian Americans can be found on the south and southeast side of Denver, as well as some on Denver's southwest side. The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns.
There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. (Birth Rate of 14.6). In 2007, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 59.1% of all the births. Some 14.06% of those births involved a non-Hispanic white person and someone of a different race, most often with a couple including one Hispanic. A birth where at least one Hispanic person was involved counted for 43% of the births in Colorado. As of the 2010 Census, Colorado has the seventh highest percentage of Hispanics (20.7%) in the U.S. behind New Mexico (46.3%), California (37.6%), Texas (37.6%), Arizona (29.6%), Nevada (26.5%), and Florida (22.5%). Per the 2000 census, the Hispanic population is estimated to be 918,899 or approximately 20% of the state total population. Colorado has the 5th largest population of Mexican-Americans behind California, Texas, Arizona, and Illinois. In percentages, Colorado has the 6th highest percentage of Mexican-Americans behind New Mexico, California, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada.
In 2011, 46% of Colorado's population younger than the age of one were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.
Major religious affiliations of the people of Colorado are 64% Christian, of whom there are 44% Protestants, 19% Roman Catholics, 3% Latter Day Saint/Mormon, 2% Jews, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist and 0.5% Hindu. The religiously unaffiliated make up 25% of the population.
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 811,630; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 229,981; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 142,473.
Colorado also has a reputation for being a state of active and athletic people. According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US. As of 2007, 18% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 17% from 2004. Former Colorado Governor Bill Ritter commented: "As an avid fisherman and bike rider, I know first-hand that Colorado provides a great environment for active, healthy lifestyles," although he highlighted the need for continued education and support to slow the growth of obesity in the state.
A number of film productions have shot on location in Colorado, especially prominent Westerns like True Grit, The Searchers and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. A number of historic military forts, railways with trains still operating, mining ghost towns have been utilized and transformed for historical accuracy in well known films. There are also a number of scenic highways and mountain passes that helped to feature the open road in films such as Vanishing Point, Bingo and Starman. Some Colorado landmarks have been featured in films, such as the The Stanley Hotel in Dumb and Dumber and the Sculptured House in Sleeper. The Colorado Office of Film and Television has noted that over 400 films have been shot in Colorado.
There are also a number of established film festivals in Colorado, including Aspen Shortsfest, Boulder International Film Festival, Castle Rock Film Festival, Denver Film Festival, Festivus film festival, Mile High Horror Film Festival, Moondance International Film Festival, Mountainfilm in Telluride, Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival, and Telluride Film Festival.
Colorado is known for its Southwest and Rocky Mountain cuisine. Mexican restaurants are prominent throughout the state.
Boulder, Colorado was named America's Foodiest Town 2010 by Bon Appétit. Boulder, and Colorado in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets. Boulder, Colorado also has more Master Sommeliers per capita than any other city, including San Francisco and New York.
The Food & Wine Classic held annually each June in Aspen, Colorado. Aspen also has a reputation as the culinary capital of the Rocky Mountain region.
Denver is known for steak, but now has a diverse culinary scene with many top-tier restaurants.
Colorado wines include award-winning varietals that have attracted favorable notice from outside the state. With wines made from traditional Vitis vinifera grapes along with wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, Colorado wines have won top national and international awards for their quality. Colorado's grape growing regions contain the highest elevation vineyards in the United States, with most viticulture in the state practiced between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (1,219 and 2,134 m) above sea level. The mountain climate ensures warm summer days and cool nights. Colorado is home to two designated American Viticultural Areas of the Grand Valley AVA and the West Elks AVA, where most of the vineyards in the state are located. However, an increasing number of wineries are located along the Front Range.
Colorado is home to many nationally praised microbreweries, including New Belgium Brewing Company, Odell Brewing Company, Great Divide Brewing Company, and Oskar Blues Brewery. The area of northern Colorado near the city of Fort Collins is known as the "Napa Valley of Beer" due to its high density of craft breweries.
Colorado is one of four states to legalize both the medicinal (2000) and recreational (2014) use of marijuana.
Amendment 64 also states that the Colorado state legislature "shall enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing and sale of industrial hemp" by July 1, 2014. On April 4, 2014 Senate Bill 14-184 addressing oversight of Colorado's industrial hemp program was first introduced, ultimately being signed into law by Governor John Hickenlooper on May 31, 2014. This legislation makes Colorado the only source of domestically grown industrial hemp in the United States.
On November 7, 2000, 54% of Colorado voters passed Amendment 20, which amends the Colorado State constitution to allow the medical use of cannabis. Patients can possess no more than two ounces of "usable cannabis" and not more than six cannabis plants.
Currently Colorado has listed "eight medical conditions for which patients can use cannabis – cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy." Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper has allocated about half of the state's $13 million "Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund" to medical research in the 2014 budget.
On November 6, 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis in a manner similar to alcohol. The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.
CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized Colorado as the third best state in the nation, falling short to only Texas and Virginia.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the total state product in 2010 was $257.6 billion. Per capita personal income in 2010 was $51 940, ranking Colorado 11th in the nation. The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay.
The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command), United States Air Force Academy, Schriever Air Force Base located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson Air Force Base, and Fort Carson, both located in Colorado Springs within El Paso County; NOAA, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center near Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, and Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km2) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state. In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, the extraction of metals such as gold (see Gold mining in Colorado), silver, and molybdenum. Colorado now also has the largest annual production of beer of any state. Denver is an important financial center.
A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. Holly Sugar was first milled from beets in Holly in 1905, and later moved its headquarters to Colorado Springs. The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes model rockets were launched in Penrose in 1958. Fort Collins has been the home of Woodward Governor Company's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango in 1981.
Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income – income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions. Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, according to Colorado's Taxpayer Bill of Rights legislation, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply.
Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.
As of August 2014, the state's unemployment rate is 5.3%.
Major philanthropic organizations based in Colorado, include the Daniels Fund, the Anschutz Family Foundation, the Gates Family Foundation, the El Pomar Foundation and the Boettcher Foundation grant each year from approximately $7 billion of assets.
Colorado has significant hydrocarbon resources. According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation's 100 largest natural gas fields and two of its 100 largest oil fields. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically account for more than 5 percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Colorado's oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km3) of oil – nearly as much oil as the entire world's proven oil reserves; the economic viability of the oil shale, however, has not been demonstrated. Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are found in the state.
Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges and eastern plains offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Much of the state is sunny and could produce solar power. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the state offers potential resources for ethanol production.
Colorado's primary mode of transportation (in terms of passengers) is its highway system. Interstate 25 (I-25) is the primary north–south highway in the state, connecting Pueblo, Colorado Springs, Denver, and Fort Collins, and extending north to Wyoming and south to New Mexico. I-70 is the primary east–west corridor. It connects Grand Junction and the mountain communities with Denver, and enters Utah and Kansas. The state is home to a network of US and Colorado highways that provide access to all principal areas of the state. Smaller communities are only connected to this network via county roads.
Denver International Airport (DIA) is the fourth busiest domestic U.S. airport and thirteenth busiest world airport DIA handles by far the largest volume of commercial air traffic in Colorado, and is the busiest U.S. hub airport between Chicago and the Pacific coast, making Denver the most important airport for connecting passenger traffic in the western United States. Denver International Airport is the primary hub for low-cost carrier Frontier Airlines, with routes throughout North America. It is also the fourth-largest hub of the world's largest airline, United Airlines. DIA is a focus city for Southwest Airlines, which since commencing service to Denver in January 2006, has added over 50 destinations, making Denver its fastest-growing market. Denver International Airport is the only airport in the United States to have implemented an ISO 14001-certified environmental management system covering the entire airport.
Extensive public transportation bus services are offered both intra-city and inter-city—including the Denver metro area's extensive RTD services. The Regional Transportation District (RTD) operates the popular RTD Bus & Light Rail transit system in the Denver Metropolitan Area. As of January 2013 the RTD rail system had 170 light rail vehicles, serving 47 miles (76 km) of track.
Amtrak operates two rail passenger lines through Colorado, including the Glenwood Canyon route of the famed California Zephyr, one of America's legendary passenger trains. Colorado's contribution to world railroad history was forged principally by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad which began in 1870 and wrote the book on mountain railroading. In 1988 the "Rio Grande" acquired, but was merged into, the Southern Pacific Railroad by their joint owner Philip Anschutz. On September 11, 1996, Anschutz sold the combined company to the Union Pacific Railroad, creating the largest railroad network in the United States. The Anschutz sale was partly in response to the earlier merger of Burlington Northern and Santa Fe which formed the large Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), Union Pacific's principal competitor in western U.S. railroading. Both Union Pacific and BNSF have extensive freight operations in Colorado.
Colorado's freight railroad network consists of 2,688 miles of Class I trackage. It is integral to the U.S. economy, being a critical artery for the movement of energy, agriculture, mining, and industrial commodities as well as general freight and manufactured products between the East and Midwest and the Pacific coast states.
In August 2014, Colorado began to issue driver licenses to aliens not lawfully in the United States who lived in Colorado. In September 2014, KCNC reported that 524 non-citizens were issued licenses issued to U.S. Citizens living in Colorado.
Like the federal government and all other U.S. states, Colorado's state constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches.
The Governor of Colorado heads the state's executive branch. The current governor is John Hickenlooper, a Democrat. Colorado's other statewide elected executive officers are the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado (elected on a ticket with the Governor), Secretary of State of Colorado, Colorado State Treasurer, and Attorney General of Colorado, all of whom serve four-year terms.
The seven-member Colorado Supreme Court is the highest judicial court in the state. The state legislative body is the Colorado General Assembly, which is made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35. As of 2014[update], the Republican Party holds an 18 to 17 majority in the Senate and a 31 to 34 minority in the House.
Most Coloradans are native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census), and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973).
The State of Colorado is divided into 64 counties. Counties are important units of government in Colorado since the state has no secondary civil subdivisions such as townships. Two of these counties, the City and County of Denver and the City and County of Broomfield, have consolidated city and county governments.
Nine Colorado counties have a population in excess of 250,000 each, while eight Colorado counties have a population of less than 2,500 each. The ten most populous Colorado counties are all located in the Front Range Urban Corridor.
The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined one Combined Statistical Area (CSA), seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs) in the state of Colorado.
The most populous of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in Colorado is the Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. This area had an estimated population of 2,599,504 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.20% since the 2010 United States Census.
The more extensive Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 3,157,520 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.16% since the 2010 United States Census.
The most populous extended metropolitan region in Rocky Mountain Region is the Front Range Urban Corridor along the northeast face of the Southern Rocky Mountains. This region with Denver at its center had an estimated population of 4,495,181 on July 1, 2012, an increase of +3.73% since the 2010 United States Census.
The state of Colorado currently has 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, and two consolidated city and county governments.
Colorado municipalities operate under one of five types of municipal governing authority. Colorado has one town with a territorial charter, 160 statutory towns, 12 statutory cities, 96 home rule municipalities (61 cities and 35 towns), and 2 consolidated city and county governments.
In addition to its 271 municipalities, Colorado has 187 unincorporated Census Designated Places and many other small communities.
The state of Colorado has more than 3,000 districts with taxing authority. These districts may provide schools, law enforcement, fire protection, water, sewage, drainage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support, redevelopment, or other services.
Some of these districts have authority to levy sales tax and well as property tax and use fees. This has led to a hodgepodge of sales tax and property tax rates in Colorado. There are some street intersections in Colorado with a different sales tax rate on each corner, sometimes substantially different.
Some of the more notable Colorado districts are:
Colorado is considered a swing state in both state and federal elections. Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. In presidential politics, Colorado was considered a reliably Republican state during the post-World War II era, only voting for the Democratic candidate in 1964 and 1992. However, it became a competitive swing state by the turn of the century, and voted consecutively for Democrat Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012.
Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and liberal cities such as Boulder and Denver. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins and Boulder, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a few western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, and far Western Colorado near Grand Junction.
The state of Colorado is represented by its two United States Senators:
Colorado is represented by seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives:
On the November 8, 1932 ballot, Colorado approved the repeal of alcohol prohibition more than a year before the federal government passed the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution.
In 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis in a manner similar to alcohol. The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.
Colleges and universities in Colorado:
Colorado is currently the home of seven major military bases and installations.
Former Military installations and outposts include:
Colorado is home to four national parks, eight national monuments, two national recreation areas, two national historic sites, three national historic trails, one national scenic trail, 11 national forests, two national grasslands, 42 national wilderness areas, two national conservation areas, eight national wildlife refuges, 44 state parks, 307 state wildlife areas, and numerous other scenic, historic, and recreational areas.
Units of the National Park System in Colorado:
Colorado has five major professional sports leagues, all based in the Denver metropolitan area. Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues.
The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb is a major hillclimbing motor race held at the Pikes Peak Highway. Meanwhile, the Pikes Peak International Raceway.
The Cherry Hills Country Club has hosted several professional golf tournaments, including the U.S. Open, U.S. Senior Open, U.S. Women's Open, PGA Championship and BMW Championship.
The following universities and colleges participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. The most popular college sports program is the University of Colorado Buffaloes, who used to play in the Big-12 but now play in the Pac-12. They have won the 1957 and 1991 Orange Bowl, 1995 Fiesta Bowl and 1996 Cotton Bowl Classic.
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aromatase inhibitor, which essentially blocks the conversion of
testosterone to estrogen. It has the effect of increasing
testosterone levels, while keeping your estrogen low.
Once you have your testosterone and estrogen solved, it's time
to stop the next inevitable decline? Shrinking testicles.
This is where HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) comes in. It
prevents both infertility and testicle shrinkage. Your
testicles shrink because your body thinks it doesn't need to
make testosterone anymore.
For some, small testicles may seem like just a cosmetic
problem. But HGC does more than increase testicle size, it also
increases adrenal function, which can have positive effects on
well-being, libido, and energy.
Ageless By Suzanne Somers. The naked truth about Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy is a comprehensive book about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) by Suzanne Somers. The book discusses the revolutionary medicine of HRT....